In order to study the Nobel Prize winner to eat bacteria Barry – Marshall: explore the pace of non-stop

2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Chinese Academy of Engineering foreign academician, Australian scientist Barry Marshall (Barry Marshall) to accept Sina science and technology interview Sina Technology News September 22 news, at the 2017 Shenzhen International BT Leadership Summit , 2005 Nobel Prize winner Barry – Marshall as a guest speaker with a fairly fluent Chinese with everyone greeted, then talked about his most familiar with the Helicobacter, this is the ” The diagnostic technique requires a gold standard. ” Helicobacter pylori is currently known to be able to survive in the human stomach only microbial species that can cause gastritis, gastrointestinal ulcers and even stomach cancer, speech, Barry – Marshall mentioned in many parts of China have Helicobacter pylori, especially in In the northwestern and southeastern China, more than 70% of the population is infected with Helicobacter pylori each year. That is to say, about 50% of people in China have the risk of developing gastric cancer, while the main achievement of Barry Marshall is to prove Helicobacter pylori is caused by the majority of gastric ulcer and gastritis causes, breaking the people who have been popular for many years at the time of the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer misunderstanding, known as the digestive research field of milestone revolution, Lit the digestive ulcer cure the road of light. Interest in science never diminished In 1951, Barry Marshall was born in the town of Calgol, more than 600 kilometers east of Perth, Canada. His father is a repair steam engine and train fitter and lathe workers, the mother is a nurse. Soon they moved home, and the father began managing a chicken farm in Perth. Marshall spent a carefree childhood. Marshall’s interest in science is inseparable from his family environment. Since the mother is a nurse, he often reads some nursing books. He has three brothers, usually always love to play some electronic components and gunpowder, fiddle explosion, or play welding. In his speech, he also mentioned that he was very interested in the study of science and technology, and at the time of his study, he worked with the school’s science education award judges and made a refrigerator. He still liked the electronic equipment, including computers and so on A variety of technical products, by doing some small scientific research to relax themselves, he showed the laboratory photos, the room was placed on his collection of a 75-year-old antique computer. Marshall was bent on becoming a general practitioner, he was interested in the cause of the disease, in 1974, he received a degree from the University of Western Australia undergraduate medicine. With the increase in experience, he found that most of the patients can not be diagnosed with the disease, not as taught by the medical school, after learning can be diagnosed and treated all diseases. So he learned to keep an open mind. “Take my own example, I was not good at sports, and when I picked up a football player, I was always left with that.” Marshall recalls, “I was very early But I do not have a specific purpose, try a lot of direction. Any interesting things I have to try.However, in school, once I am sure I can learn a discipline, excitement will follow I’m fond of the excitement of new things – boring is the most horrible thing in the world. “The most heroic experiment: Drinking Helicobacter pylori culture medium Before the 20th century, people do not pay too much attention to gastric ulcer The The doctors will say, “You are just under pressure.” 19th century Europeans and Americans invented a variety of crazy therapies. In the 1880s, doctors invented gastric ulcer surgery: the bottom of the pouch removed, and then re-connected with the intestinal tract. Now we know that Helicobacter pylori is the initiator of gastric ulcers, but most people who are infected with the bacteria are likely to have no symptoms for life. In 1981, during the third year of Marshall’s training practice, he learned about the hospital’s pathologist Robin Warren. The latter for two consecutive years, always in gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients with tissue biopsy found a bacteria. These bacteria were S-shaped or spiral, and infected lesions covered in the stomach table. So Marshall began to work with Warren to study the project. Marshall and Warren analyzed the biopsy samples of hundreds of patients. After several attempts, Marshall finally cultivated a previously unexplored bacterium in the Petri dish and was named Helicobacter pylori, The They suspect that the bacteria is the culprit leading to gastritis and gastric ulcer, rather than the pressure before, irritating food and unhealthy habits. Prior to this, it was also suggested that gastric ulcer caused by the theory of bacteria. But at that time academics agreed that bacteria can not survive in the acidic environment of the stomach. Marshall and Warren not only for the first time correctly identified the bacteria, but also proposed Helicobacter pylori hiding in the neutral gastric mucosa, it will not be gastric acid corrosion. However, their theory because of the contrary with the mainstream argument, was seriously underestimated. The two major drugs used to treat gastric ulcer, Tagamet and Zantac, were also interested in their new theory. They were reluctant to admit that gastric ulcer was a bacterial infection and could be cured with antibiotics. “I know that we have to do an animal test,” Marshall said. “So we started experimenting with pigs, but we did not succeed.” At the same time, their research fund was about to run out. And every year tens of thousands of people died of gastric cancer. Eventually, Marshall decided to take the risk of risk, in person to carry out a most heroic experiment. In July 1984, Marshall drank a flattened beaker with a flattened brown liquid filled with Helicobacter pylori. Three days later, he began to feel sick. On the fifth day, he began to vomit, the symptoms lasted for three consecutive days. During this period, his colleagues collected a bacterial sample from Marshall’s gastric mucosa and recorded the physiological changes after Marshall’s severe gastritis. After suffering two weeks in pain, Marshall finally got the evidence he needed to start taking antibiotics. MostHe was lucky enough to recover as ever. A month later, Marshall and colleagues presented the experimental process and results to the “Medical Journal of Australia”. They not only proved that Helicobacter pylori is the culprit leading to gastric ulcer, but also found that the bacteria is closely related to gastric cancer. As a result of this significant contribution, Marshall and Warren won the 2005 Nobel Prize in Medicine. It is not easy to hold on to the mainstream and the authoritative point of view. But Marshall said: “As a research practitioner, you have to keep cheeky and ready to meet criticism.” The pace of exploration never stopped: the development of long-acting vaccine in the Nobel Prize, Marshall has not stopped the pace of exploration, still active In the first line of medical science research. About 10% of people infected with Helicobacter pylori suffer from gastric ulcers and the more active the immune system is, the more likely they are affected. Although the majority of people suffering from gastric ulcer, but the bacteria may also lead to more dangerous diseases – cancer. Helicobacter pylori is classified as a carcinogen in Australia, even if there is no gastric ulcer who also have cancer potential, so Professor Marshall pointed out that the body of Helicobacter pylori must be disposed of, even if the infected person without any discomfort, can not be taken lightly The He and the researchers found that Helicobacter pylori can produce a layer of waxy shell, to prevent the erosion by the stomach acid, it can survive in the stomach for a long time, if you can understand the composition of this layer of wax protection shell, scientists can find the corresponding Of the treatment, so that the bacteria can not survive in the stomach, may help to completely eradicate Helicobacter pylori out of the human world. At present, the main use of Helicobacter pylori is mixed therapy, the need to use a variety of antibiotics, and the efficacy of antibiotics is gradually weakened, “once found Helicobacter pylori can stubborn survival in the stomach, we can screen out thousands A natural drug that can reduce its vitality, and perhaps even antibiotics are not needed. “A vaccine is developed using a bacterial carrier (that is, the carrier is inserted into the bacteria as a carrier of a microbial fragment, such as a gene or a key site, The body produces immunity) the idea has existed for more than 30 years. The benefit of the vaccine is that after you swallow the pharmacy in the form of a vaccine, it will be slightly infected to produce an antibody response that will provide protection for the body. Some people point out that the second dose of the vaccine may not be as good as the first time, because the body will quickly remove the vaccine in the strain. And Marshall said he was in the analysis of AIDS vaccine data found that the problem is that patients need to carry out multiple additional injections. If you add three or four times, and even five or six times the vaccine, they may be able to get enough immunity to resist the HIV virus, but injecting so many vaccines are not practical. So he thought of Helicobacter pylori. Many people are infected with Helicobacter pylori in their lives, but most people do not show symptoms. In fact, 80% of people do not have any discomfort, if you can find a harmless Helicobacter pylori, it is cloned into the HIV vaccine, or any vaccine, the vaccine will be vaccinated by this harmless pylori Helicobacter pylori infection, the body of the antigen will always exist, equivalent to an additional vaccine every day. The idea seems to be good. But some of the vaccine strains still have some toxicity, so Marshall’s research team did not start to find completely harmless Helicobacter pylori strains, but Marshall did not give up hope. In one experiment, the control group used the killed Helicobacter pylori, and the researchers found that these dead Helicobacter pylori-induced immunosuppressive effects were almost as strong as the live H. pylori, indicating that the dead pyloric screw Bacteria can also activate the regulation of T cells, produce immunosuppressive effects, change the focus of the immune system, and 100% safe, to avoid the problems caused by live bacteria. At present, Marshall and others are using Helicobacter pylori extract to develop vaccines. They are using dead Helicobacter pylori, but the immune system will be mistaken as living bacteria. The vaccine produced by Helicobacter pylori has the strongest effect, but the vaccine prepared by Helicobacter pylori is the most safe and the vaccine is still in the academic research stage. Due to the special nature of Helicobacter pylori, a person only needs to inject a vaccine for life. Although it is not a good thing for pharmaceutical companies. But governments and the World Health Organization may be interested in this. In an interview with allergies and asthma, Professor Marshall also introduced a new drug intended to inhibit the overactivation of the immune system. “This inspiration actually comes from my research with Dr. Warren on Helicobacter pylori a few years ago.” Marshall “We have found that this bacterium can inhibit the body’s immune system and therefore can survive for a long time in the body and can not be extinguished by the immune system.I can not guarantee that the therapy will completely cure allergy sufferers … but we think this medicine can be overactive The immune system is down to normal levels, “said Marshall, who may be able to prevent asthma from allergies when he or she has shown asthma or allergic symptoms at an early age.” We may be able to protect them from life-long allergies. ” The new drug may be made into a powder form, easily mixed with food and drink to the child, the drug has been ready for manufacture, the next will be the first animal, and then in the human body for safety testing, is expected within three years Clinical trials in children. Marshall also mentioned in Shenzhen settled in the laboratory has developed several products, mainly for the precise diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori, to provide more accurate reports of Helicobacter pylori resistance or specific antibiotics to use the guidance report, so Clinicians use the report on the patient treatment, you can more quickly and accurately use antibiotics, the treatment of Helicobacter pylori to enhance a level. Now, Marshall is constantly “trying” new things. “After getting the Nobel Prize, someone told me that it was hard to achieve a lot of achievements in my life, but I thought: ‘I was 56 years old and I have succeeded in understanding a disease and Successfully found the diagnosis and treatment methods, then in the next few years, the use of these knowledge of Helicobacter pylori, what should I do most of the things?There is no doubt that Marshall will continue his research path, and on this road farther and farther. (Guo Yi)

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