Stay up bad and healthy, is a well-known truth. Irregular sleep may lead to a decline in learning ability, endocrine disorders, increased risk of heart disease and other serious consequences. And the recent study can be described as the lucky night cat party heavy blow, scientists first found up the night through the impact of intestinal microbial composition, increase dietary fatty acid intake and fat storage, and thus induced the mechanism of obesity. Recently, from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Institute of Immunology Lora V. A study published by Professor Hooper in the journal Science shows that intestinal microbes, mainly Gram-negative bacteria with flagellum in the intestine, can produce substances such as flagellin or lipopolysaccharide, which can be transmitted through a series of signals Promote uptake of dietary fatty acids in mouse small intestinal epithelial cells, and storage of fat (1). Combined with previous studies, breaking circadian rhythms can significantly increase the relative abundance of most of the gram-negative bacteria in mouse intestinal microbes (2). This also means that staying up late and other behaviors are easy to induce obesity, most likely because of the breakage of circadian rhythms, which greatly increases the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria with flagellum in the intestine, increases dietary fatty acid uptake, and Fat storage, and ultimately lead to obesity. Professor Hooper Obesity is a very serious class of public health problems in the 21st century. According to statistics, the world currently has 2.1 billion overweight or obese people, while 3.4 million people die each year from obesity-related diseases (3). Therefore, to find a variety of factors regulating human metabolism and energy balance to determine the mechanism of obesity, and ultimately for the prevention and treatment of obesity is necessary. As early as 2004, some scholars have found that intestinal micro-organisms in regulating the nutritional metabolism of mammals play an important role. Intestinal microbes can regulate the absorption and storage of fat and thus affect the body composition. The body weight and body fat content of sterile mice were significantly lower than those of normal mice (4) under the same food intake. In recent years, it has also been found that intestinal microbial regulation of body fat absorption, storage and circadian rhythm is closely related. A large number of studies have shown that the function of intestinal microbes on the metabolism of the body by the circadian rhythm, when the circadian rhythm is broken will cause a series of metabolic disorders related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes and so on (5). However, the specific relationship between intestinal microbes and how to promote fat absorption and storage, as well as circadian rhythms, intestinal microbes and the body’s nutritional metabolism, is how the problem is unknown. Intestinal microbes under electron microscopy Professor Hooper from UT Southwest Medical Center has long been committed to the study of intestinal microbes and body nutrition metabolism. In the course of the study, Prof. Hooper unexpectedly found that the expression of NFIL3 transcription factor in the small intestinal epithelial cells of normal mice with intestinal microbes was up to 70% higher than that of sterile mice. Through the transcriptome analysis, Professor Hooper found that NFIL3 function is to promote small intestinal epithelial cells on the absorption of fatty acids and fat storage. This means that intestinal microbes are likely to regulate the absorption and storage of fat by modulating the expression of NFIL3 . To demonstrate this, Professor Hooper was given a high-fat diet for 10 weeks in normal mice, sterile mice, and NFIL3 knockout mice, respectively. As a result, it was found that the absorption and storage of fat in mice containing aseptic microbes were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, sterile mice, and NFIL3 gene knockout, and the body fat levels were very close. Indicating that intestinal microbial growth and storage of fat is indeed achieved by regulating the expression of NFIL3. How does intestine microbes regulate NFIL3 expression? Previous studies have shown that expression of NFIL3 is regulated by REV-ERBa protein in other types of cells. REV-ERBa protein is a transcriptional inhibitor that inhibits NFIL3 expression (6). This means that intestinal microbes are likely to indirectly promote NFIL3 expression by inhibiting the expression of REV-ERBa protein, which promotes the function of promoting fat absorption. To prove this, Professor Hooper has experimented with a number of experiments. It was found that flagellin and lipopolysaccharide produced by flagellated gram-negative bacteria in intestinal microbes could pass through the intestinal barrier and reach the intestinal mucosa and interact with the immune cells beneath the intestinal mucosa. Through a series of signals Transduction and promote signal transduction and transcription factor 3 (STAT3) activation in small intestinal epithelial cells, inhibit the expression of REV-ERBa protein, and finally show the function of promoting fat absorption and storage. In general, Professor Hooper’s study shows that NFIL3 is an important molecular link between intestinal microbes, circadian rhythms, and body nutrient metabolism.
Circadian rhythm can regulate the composition of intestinal microbes, thus affecting the expression of NFIL3, and ultimately can achieve the purpose of regulating the body’s nutritional metabolism. This finding also means that NFIL3, STAT3, etc. The future is also promising to serve as a target for obesity. Although Professor Hooper’s experiment was done in mice. However, previous studies have also found that staying up late also makes significant changes in the composition of human intestinal microbes, causing a variety of metabolic-related diseases such as obesity (7). So Professor Hooper’s discovery of this mechanism also helps explain why staying up late will make us human produce a variety of metabolic diseases, especially obesity and diabetes. In particular, since previous studies have shown that staying up late for female mice in the intestineMicrobiological effects are greater (2). Therefore, for the beauty of women, it should avoid staying up late. Reference 1.Wang Y, Kuang Z, Yu X, et al. The intestinal microbiota regulates body composition through NFIL3 and the circadian clock [J]. Science, 2017, 357 (6354): 912-916. 2.Liang X, Bushman F D, FitzGerald G A. Rhythmicity of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by gender and the host circadian clock [J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015, 112 (33): 10479-10484. 3. Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 [J]. The lancet, 2014, 384 (9945): 766-781. 4.B? Ckhed F, Ding H, Wang T, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage [J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2004, 101 (44): 15718-15723. 5.Thaiss C A, Zeevi D, Levy M, et al. Transkingdom control of microbiota diurnal oscillations gallery metabolic homeostasis [J]. Cell, 2014, 159 (3): 514-529. 6.Yu X, Rollins D, Ruhn K A, et al. TH17 cell differentiation is regulated by the circadian clock [J]. Science, 2013, 342 (6159): 727-730. 7. Scheer F A J L, Hilton M F, Mantzoros C S, et al. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment [J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2009, 106 (11): 4453-4458.