How does the light escape from the dark ages of the universe: the black hole makes the universe clear

图中是艺术家描绘的一个超大质量黑洞,它被落入其中的漩涡物质盘环绕,黑洞上方有一个紫色光球,该现象包含着可以产生X射线的高能量粒子,它紫色光球向内聚集,将变得更加明亮,之后从黑洞喷射出来。
图中是艺术家描绘的一个超大质量黑洞,它被落入其中的漩涡物质盘环绕,黑洞上方有一个紫色光球,该现象包含着可以产生X射线的高能量粒子,它紫色光球向内聚集,将变得更加明亮,之后从黑洞喷射出来。
The figure is an ultra-high quality black hole depicted by the artist, which is surrounded by a whirlpool of material, with a purple ball above the black hole, which contains high-energy particles that produce X-rays, Inwardly gathered, will become brighter and then eject from the black hole.
宇宙中最早期恒星和再电离纪元。
宇宙中最早期恒星和再电离纪元。
The earliest stars in the universe and the re-ionization era. According to foreign media reports, after the Big Bang about 500 million years later, the light is how the dark universe from the “dark age” out of the? At present, the latest research by scientists may reveal one of the oldest mysteries of the universe, and the surprising protagonist in this story is everyone’s favorite “astronomical villain” – black hole.

The story begins after a few minutes after the big bang, when the universe is exponentially expanding. In about 40 million years, the universe quickly cooled into a cosmic soup made up of elementary particles and formed dense hydrogen. This began the so-called “dark ages of the universe”, during which the universe was shrouded in the darkness.

Any light released by early stars and galaxies is almost immediately absorbed by the surrounding dense neutral hydrogen medium, but inexplicably, the intergalactic medium changes from cold and neutral to warm and ionized states.

The cosmologists’ theory argues that early stars and galaxies produce strong enough that ultraviolet light can burn dense hydrogen, causing the re-ionization era to make the universe miraculously filled with light, as we have observed today. Scientists did not understand how the process occurred, because other theories show that the intensity of ultraviolet radiation in stars and galaxies in the dark ages is not sufficient to be released by neutral hydrogen.

However, a recent study based on the recent observation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory may provide important clues. The study was published in the latest edition of the Royal Society of Astronomy. Although black holes are known for devouring surrounding light and matter, some black holes are thought to inject high-energy X-ray particles. Philip Kaaret, of the University of Iowa, says that when the substance falls into a black hole, it will start spinning and the rapid rotation will bring out some of the material out of the black hole. They produce strong winds that can open an ultraviolet “escape channel”, which may occur at an early stage of the galaxy.

Carrett and the team studied the Chandra observation data of the Tol 1247-232 galaxy, which is one of the closest three galaxies of the UV escape. In May 2016, the Chandra Observatory observed a single X-ray source from the Tol 1247-232 galaxy with a loss of brightness. Carrett and colleagues believe that this X-ray source does not become a star. “The stars do not show a change in brightness, and our sun is a good example, and in order to achieve a change in brightness, it must be a smaller object that is really reduced to a black hole.” The X-ray material stream ejected from the black hole appears to have exploded from the adjacent gas medium cave, thereby allowing the UV to escape.

He also pointed out that it is likely that the black hole is making wind that helps the stars ionize escape, so the black hole may make the universe more transparent. When the gravitational traction material toward the inside of the black hole, the black hole will spin faster, with the black hole gravitational pull enhanced, this rotation speed will produce energy.

The team noted that in the Tol 1247-232 galaxy, early outbreaks of X-rays had sufficient heat and energy to blow away neutral gases and dust, and that the UV radiation “leaks” out. In an e-mail, Carrett explained that many of the early galaxies in the universe had superstars, which evolved very quickly and formed black holes after death. The black hole around the material is very hot (up to millions of Kelvin), and can form X-ray, in this latest study, the ultraviolet light from the hot stars, the temperature up to 1000-100000 degrees Kelvin.

Although the black hole is likely to have this mechanism, the research team hopes to narrow the black hole type, meanwhile, they say there are other possibilities to explain their observations. Another source of possibilities is X-ray ejection, which comes from extremely bright (ULX) or ultra-bright (HLX) X-ray sources. ULXs are considered to be X-ray stars containing star-shaped black holes or neutron stars, HLXs are considered quasars or medium quality black holes.

They said that using the Chandra X-ray Observatory to repeatedly shoot the Tol 1247-232 galaxy image can reveal whether the X-ray jet originated from a single source or multiple sources. In addition, the research team began to observe another similar galaxy – Haro 11, and said that from the two examples of celestial bodies to obtain strong evidence is not possible. At present, they want to observe more galaxies for further verification. (Allure)

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