What if we can destroy all the mosquitoes on earth?

消灭地球上的蚊子会带来什么结果?这个看似简单的问题其实并不简单
消灭地球上的蚊子会带来什么结果?这个看似简单的问题其实并不简单
What are the consequences of eliminating mosquitoes on the planet? This seemingly simple question is not simple.

The question first appeared on the Quora website, and Matan Shelomi, assistant professor of entomology at the University of Taiwan, made a detailed answer under the question. The following is his answer.

This is the most frequently asked question type on Quora, the variety of questions, such as “What is the meaning of the existence of mosquitoes?”, “What role does mosquitoes play in the ecosystem?” “How can we destroy all mosquitoes?”, “How do we get rid of mosquitoes completely?”, “Is there anyone trying to destroy all mosquitoes?” And “Why do not we completely eliminate mosquitoes?” And so on. In addition to mosquitoes, we will see similar problems with other animals, including flies, cockroaches, or bug, fleas, and insects that are not insects. It takes time to get these questions together, or to answer these questions one by one. So I decided to write an article that presented the answers to all of these questions. We will focus on mosquitoes, because the situation of this animal can also be applied to other so-called pests.

Hear people so eager to hope that a species extinction, rather than prevent them from extinction, is not it kind of strange feeling? This hatred is not just because the mosquito is annoying. In fact, mosquitoes are the world’s most deadly animal for humans, and I am taking the human itself into account. They spread or carry diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and card card virus and other diseases and pathogens. Every year, all these diseases cause the death toll more than the sum of the war and homicide cases. Eliminating these diseases will save millions of lives while also reducing many pain and disability. If there are no mosquitoes, these diseases will not exist … but why is that so?

Do we need to kill all mosquitoes?

No, because not all mosquitoes are harmful. The mosquito belongs to the insects below the genus Diptera (Culicidae), including more than 3,500 species! Female usually spawning in calm water, from shallow water ponds to pots of water, from the water play basin to the ground of the water, are they breed offspring place. Mosquito larvae grow in water and feed on microbes, small particles or algae. They will pupil in the water, the adult will eventually leave the water fly away.

What do mosquito adults eat? Most species are vegetarians. They suck nectar, plant juice and juice, and never suck blood. The elimination of these species is not necessary; in fact, this will also have a negative effect. In the harmless giant mosquito (Toxorhynchites), there are more than 90 species. As the name suggests, these mosquitoes have a huge size, and they are our “allies”: their larvae eat the larvae of other mosquitoes! Because they are beneficial to humans, we should ensure that these large mosquitoes are safe and sound when we try any way to eliminate “bad” mosquitoes.

In the mosquito-borne mosquito species, only a small number (about 200) to take human blood, the other is birds, lizards or small mammals blood for food. In mosquitoes that can feed people’s blood, not all species carry pathogens, even in those species that carry disease, and not all populations are effective pathogens. Moreover, different species carry a specific disease. For example, malaria-causing malaria parasites are almost exclusively transmitted by the species of Anopheles. Of about 460 species of mosquitoes, only about 100 species of malaria parasites that can carry about five humans can infect humans (more than 200 species of malaria parasites are infected with other animals). Of these 100 species of mosquitoes, only 30 to 40 species of malaria parasites are the host of malaria parasites, and there are only a handful of malaria parasites that favor human blood as a food source and only 5 can carry Plasmodium falciparum (scientific name: Plasmodium falciparum) – the most dangerous malaria caused by the most serious symptoms, the highest mortality rate. Of these five kinds of malaria mosquitoes, the most dangerous is the malaria malaria (scientific name: Anopheles gambiae), although the species is essentially composed of at least seven species, but that is another story … … In short, if you Really want to eliminate malaria, that only a few species of the largest relationship, and must first focus on the malaria mosquito on the Gambia. Eliminating this species alone will save millions of lives.

The other few species of mosquitoes also carry pathogens, the so-called “arboviruses” (ie, all viruses that must infect vertebrates through vampire arthropod vectors). Many species of Aedes, especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, are dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Chikungunya fever virus, West Nile virus, La Crosse virus (an encephalitis virus), and some animal viruses such as Western equine encephalitis virus transmission carrier. Many of these viruses can also be transmitted through Culex and Culiseta, which also transmit avian malaria, which rarely bite human beings; the same can spread some of these viruses and yellowMosquitoes (Ochlerotatus) – but this name is still controversial, I will not start. Haemagogus can spread the yellow fever virus and some of the more rare viruses, such as Mayaro virus and Ilheus virus. Mansonia can spread some insect-borne viruses, but more predominantly to spread filarians that cause filariasis in Asia and the Pacific. The other genera also have some species that carry filarial species, which can transmit parasitic dogs and other animals, as well as several filarians that cause human elephantiasis (also known as lymphatic filariasis).

Why are some species better than other species? The answer is that mosquitoes are not just carrying the disease: they are also infected. When the mosquitoes are inhaled into the body of infected blood, their midgins will be infected. The pathogen will proliferate in the midgut and then spew into the body cavity, where it will infect the salivary glands. The whole process can be up to two weeks, depending on the type of disease. When the mosquito bites the next victim, the pathogen will be injected into the victim with saliva. This is one of the reasons why HIV can not spread through mosquitoes: the virus can not infect mosquitoes in the midgut, but directly digested. Different types of mosquitoes may be immune to certain pathogens, have midgut or salivary glands, or die only for certain natural causes before the pathogen completes the proliferative cycle and reaches the salivary glands. Infected mosquitoes sometimes do have a short life span, so the evolutionary mechanism will make these pathogens cautious: they can not kill mosquitoes before they are finished breeding and injecting new hosts.

To sum up, we do not need to kill all the mosquitoes, only need to deal with those species that spread the disease.

What did mosquitoes do for this world?

What are the other meanings of mosquitoes in addition to the spread of disease? What is more important is that the species that spread the disease play a role that makes them worth around us?

Let’s start from the larvae. Mosquito larvae, larvae, larvae, larvae, larvae, larvae, larvae, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, larvae, larvae, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, larvae, larvae, mosquitoes, larvae, Larvae will not eat any important things … … In addition to the larvae of the larvae will be the larvae of other mosquitoes for food, as already mentioned, we should avoid this genus of mosquitoes were “genocide.”

What kind of creatures will larvae eat? Other aquatic larvae, such as dragonflies and damselflies, some turtles, larger tadpoles, and fish. The most famous larvae are mosquitoes (scientific name: Gambusia affinis) and huaying mosquito (scientific name: Gambusia holbrooki). These two species of fish originating in North America, has been widely introduced to the world, for the control of ponds and pools of mosquitoes. Some local governments also free of these two kinds of fish, that they can eat mosquito larvae, rather than other creatures. This method is effective in some parts of the world, especially in the Russian city of Sochi, where it was originally a hot spot in malaria; in 2010, the locals also put up a statue of mosquitoes.

However, the view that these two species of fish eat mosquito larvae is not accurate, their names are also a misunderstanding. Hawk’s mosquitoes actually prefer plankton, algae and organic debris (the same as the larvae of food), usually in the absence of other options when they prey on larvae and other invertebrates. Mosquitoes are more powerful predators, every day can eat their weight equivalent to half of the mosquito larvae. However, they can not rely on mosquitoes to survive, but also must eat plankton and other insects and other food, otherwise it will be malnourished and slow development. Although it is called “mosquito fish”, but mosquitoes in these two kinds of fish in the daily recipe only a small part. Worse, they are extremely ferocious to other fish, and the fish themselves are equally efficient in predating mosquitoes. In Australia, the man-made mosquitoes introduced from the 20th century to the 1930s were overbearing in the water, bullying and wiping out the local fish and frogs, reducing the number of the latter to a very low level so that the number of mosquitoes – because the total number of predators is less. Local frogs and fish that are eaten or killed by alien mosquitoes, many of which are themselves important species, are now threatened with extinction, suggesting that even if mosquitoes are able to prey on mosquitoes, their introduction is likely Become a serious problem. Sochi did not suffer such a disaster because there was not much local animal group threatened by mosquitoes. The introduction of other fish, such as catfish and even goldfish, are likely to get the same effect and fresh water. It is clear that Gambusia is not a reliable helper for the elimination of mosquitoes in the world, but on the other hand we do not have to worry about the disappearance of larvae that can cause fish to disappear because no fish (or other animals) Are to eat them individually.

So for mosquito adults? The species of food they are more diverse, from fish to frogs, from salamanders to lizards, from flyers to birds and bats, not to mention other insects … … here by the way, big mosquitoes (Mosquito-hawk), but they actually do not eat mosquitoes, in fact they do not even eat anything: large mosquito adults life is very short, do not eat, mating breeding After the completion of the life of the mission. The insects that really eat mosquitoes include dragonflies and damselflies, and their aquatic larvae also prey on larvae and larvae.They are natural enemies of mosquito life.

Can these natural predators use mosquitoes? Will the removal of mosquitoes damage these predators? No, no. Once again, mosquitoes are not the only food source for all these creatures. In the case of a larger animal, the Progne subis is a beautiful American bird that is often considered a biological control species that responds to mosquitoes. However, their role may be overestimated. Many researchers observed the feeding behavior of these birds and found that mosquitoes were not much in their recipes and that their feeding areas and time did not overlap with the locus and time of active mosquitoes; The release of the purple cliffs does not have a significant impact on the local mosquito population (although some studies offer the opposite). In addition, as with mosquitoes, purple cliffs can bring counterproductive effects, because they will prey on other predators, such as dragonflies, as well as from beetles to bees and many other harmful or beneficial insects. In addition to mosquitoes, chironomids, midges, and flies, the dragonfly itself also likes to prey on bees and butterflies. Bats are so, mosquitoes in their food only less than 1%. Can you accuse these predators? Mosquitoes are small, not enough plug teeth, and a rounded beetle or moth is obviously more nutritious.

If these alternative food sources do not exist? Is there any place where mosquitoes are dominant insects in the world? There are, in the Arctic. Although most insects like warm climate, tropical areas do have the highest diversity of insects, but in fact, Arctic tundra is the world’s most serious mosquito problem, because there is a perfect breeding for the mosquito “incubator” The Arctic tundra soil is almost frozen in the winter, while the summer soil thawed, so that the whole area becomes a huge mosquito breeding ground. Mosquitoes in these places to form a large group, forming a thick cloud of clouds. Scientists believe that mosquitoes are the most important food source for birds in these areas … but others have argued that chironomidae (Chironomidae species) actually account for a larger proportion of local bird recipes and will fill The mosquito disappears after leaving the blank. So if the mosquitoes are destroyed, the Arctic birds will most likely become (and perhaps only) affected creatures. Fortunately, the predominantly mosquitoes in the Arctic are Aedes figer and Aedes nigripes, both of whom are not communicators of human disease. Therefore, if our goal is to fight against the spread of the disease species, then the Arctic can not be considered.

That pollination problem? Is there any plant that relies on mosquito pollination? There are many, but most of the plants (such as a branch of the genus) can also be pollinated by other insects. A few plants do favor mosquito pollination, that is, although other insects can help them pollinate, but mosquitoes are the most common and most efficient. These plants belong to orchids, and are also species of low temperature. One example is the North Ozawa (scientific name: Platanthera obtusata), a growth in the Arctic region of the tongue lips, mainly rely on Aedes aegora and a few moths for pollination. This orchid is attracted by mosquitoes by sending a faint smell that can be detected by mosquitoes but not our nose – to attract mosquitoes, which is very similar to human tastes. And a small orchid similar to the northern Ozawa, Platanthera flava, is mainly dependent on Aedesia pollination, followed by small moths. Other Platanthera species are mainly pollinated by other insects, followed by mosquitoes; or mainly for autologous pollination, with little need for insects; other few orchids have similar phenomena. As a result, some of these orchids may be threatened by the elimination of mosquitoes. However, none of these orchids have an important influence on the ecosystem itself, and they are not very important to humans; there is not much change in the world without them. This is not to say that the problem of orchid species extinction is irrelevant, but that the problem of insect-borne diseases is relatively more urgent.

What risks will the mosquito eliminate? As you can see, there is no so-called “keystone species” in mosquitoes. No ecosystem will collapse because of any disappearance of mosquitoes. The only exception may be Arctic tundra, but the mosquito species there are not disease communicators and can therefore be preserved.

Of course, these are our assumptions. There is no doubt that we do not know how all the mosquito species interact with all the other forms of life in their environment, and we may have overlooked something. The extinction of non-deterministic goals is not the only problem. Another possibility is that the blanks left behind after the mosquitoes are destroyed (academically referred to as “niches”) will be more annoying by others – albeit of creatures that may not spread the disease. Worst case is that a mosquito carrying a pathogen replaces the other, and most likely it is that the mosquito will be outside the genus Mosquito, including the family, including the family, Branch, net mosquito, gall moth, mosquito, mosquito, Deuterophlebia, miniculaceae, fecal mosquito and moth family. These insects also have aquatic larvae, some species of female individuals will also take blood, some of which will also take human blood. Fewer mosquito competitors, and may become less predators, these species of species may usher in the outbreak of the number of populations. On the other hand, predators who prey on mosquitoes may beMore predation of these groups, after a period of time to make the number of balance. Are these groups close to mosquitoes at risk? The species of the family will not be bite, but the meconium will not only allow people to continue itching for up to a week, some species will also spread the disease of human and animal infection (although not yet found Human malaria or yellow fever).

The mosquito will also affect the ecosystem in another unexpected way, and once again mention the Arctic. The mosquito controls the migration of the reindeer (scientific name: Rangifer tarandus caribou). Larger reindeer populations living in Canada have been on a journey to food, but they will travel much more in the summer, travel to higher elevations, and sometimes avoid the best foraging The All this is because they want to avoid the summer in the Arctic ravages of the huge mosquito. Walking for a long time without eating means that North American reindeer has less fat for cold winter, and this often represents death. The elimination of mosquitoes in these areas will change the migration path of the reindeer in North America for a long time, and the consequences can not be expected. On the other hand, the number of reindeer populations in North America today is only a small fraction of the number – from hundreds of thousands to thousands, while the destruction of human habitat is the main cause of the decline. So some more reindeer in North America is a good thing. Mosquito damage to reindeer in North America is obvious. In the worst period of mosquitoes, North American reindeer will lose as much as 1 liter of blood a week. So if you ask me, I will say that they are definitely in favor of killing the mosquitoes. Taking into account their population size and group wisdom, if the vote, then the votes must be a lot.

Considering that we have eradicated malaria mosquitoes in many parts of the world without causing any trouble, the real extreme situation is unlikely. However, there is no absolute, extinct or extinction of extinction, where a species has disappeared or destroyed in a selected geographic area, but still exists in other areas) can lead to unpredictable risks. The question is: does this change the risk of an ecosystem compared to the value of human life? To what extent? We are not in the debate should not save the panda, but whether or not to eradicate the history of mankind known to kill the most murderer. Considering that insect vectors and malaria are still killing or infecting millions of people, if the choice does not destroy those associated media mosquitoes, the only defense is that the expected environmental effects will bring the same damage The We can not give poisons in a whole tropical rainforest against yellow fever, because millions of people rely on tropical rainforests for food, medicine, wood, jobs, clean drinking water and clean air; prescriptions are worse than disease And affect more people. On the other hand, if we destroy Aedes aegypti, and a salamander and an orchid will disappear: such a transaction we can accept. Here’s “we” means millions of people who no longer die because of yellow fever. There is no doubt that the extinction of other species is indeed a tragedy, but the value of victory against yellow fever can be comparable to the Nobel Peace Prize. The extinction of dodo and bag wolves did not bring benefits to human society, and it was completely unfortunate that, contrary to the disappearance of Aedes aegypti or Gambia malaria, its value would be more than the most pessimistic estimated cost To be high.

How can we eliminate all the diseases of the world?

Since the process of retrofitting ecosystems is rather subtle, it is important not to use some rather broad methods. It is harder to predict the effect of eradicating a species: Imagine taking all the creatures that have been killed in the process … if we can all be envisioned! So pesticides can be ruled out: they do not have a clear goal, but also can not work on a global scale. Spraying agents in the air will not hurt mosquitoes that inhabit human beings in the room, spray insecticides in the breeding area of ​​mosquitoes, and will not penetrate numerous small spaces in human settlements, from hollow tree holes to small pieces in plastic bags Water, may be mosquito breeding place. This is also the reason why public participation is particularly important in mosquito control: everyone must do their part to clean up the mosquito breeding grounds in their own backyard. Otherwise, even if one does not handle it, the mosquito will come back.

No, if we want to eradicate mosquitoes around the world, we need a way to target a particular species so that the goal can not be resisted and there is no place to escape. By program design, it is important to ensure that only the target creatures are affected and that they can not adapt or evolve their resistance. We need some way of making them “self-destruct”, that is, the target species inadvertently leads to their own death. Is this possible?

is possible and already done. New World Spiderfly (scientific name: Cochliomyia hominivorax) is a parasitic flies, the maggots will parasitic in mammalian healthy tissue. Man is also the host of this parasitic flies, but the more serious is the cattle, parasitic cattle will die within 10 days. In the 1950s, the United States suffered more than $ 200 million in economic losses from the New World Spider. Things have come to an urgent point, but the insecticide does not work. Scientists have done a lot of research on the New World Spirulina, including a $ 250,000, part of the study on the behavior of the new world. The study was criticized by many US senators, arguing that it was a waste of taxpayers’ money. However, these senators soon obediently recall the preamble, admitting to apologize. Scientists have found that the female New World Spider is actually a single,That is, only mate once in life. Researchers Edward Knipling and Raymond Bushland speculate that if a female New World Spider is mated with a sterile male, its eggs will never Will be hatch; and because the male can be repeated mating, so a male sterility can make a lot of female can not produce offspring. Therefore, if a sufficient number of sterile male New World Spideries (not affected by cattle and other animals, because the flies will not suck or spawning) “pouring” into the ecosystem, you can immediately shrink the next generation Of the population size. This process can be repeated several times until the final female flies are mated with the infertile male fly, by that time, the whole population will be eliminated forever. In the 1950s laboratory, scientists used X-rays (later gamma rays and other techniques) to conduct experiments on the New World Spiderfly’s sterile insect technique (SIT). They drastically moth flies with minced meat and then irradiated with rays that are strong enough to make them sterile and not too weak to compete with normal males. Long story short, this method worked. By dropping the sterile males a few weeks from once every week, scientists have succeeded in eliminating the New World Spider, followed by Mexico, and then heading south, eventually North America and Central America. The traces of parasitic flies. In 1988, the New World Spider was accidentally brought into Libya, and in December 1990, the country introduced sterile drosophila, and in less than a year to eradicate the parasitic flies. Now in Panama, sterile drosophila will also be put on a regular basis to build a biological wall that blocks any female flies coming from the south. These measures only for the US animal husbandry to save more than 20 billion US dollars, this figure is still increasing. The author of the study won the 1992 World Food Prize (World Food Prize), the results also known as “(20) the century’s greatest entomological achievements.”

For the safe elimination of disease vector mosquitoes, the principle of insect control technology is desirable because it does not cause other effects on the environment, except that the target species itself disappears; and that this method will only act at a time In a species, insect control techniques for Aedes aegypti will not have any effect on Aedes albusres, let alone other mosquitoes, as well as other insects, mammals or humans. Many female species of mosquitoes are also single, so theoretically can also apply insect control technology. In addition, since only the herbivorous male is released, even if billions of such mosquitoes are released in one place, the population will not be bite. In some parts of Africa, insects have been successfully used to control flies (Glossina spp., Which can spread African human trypanosomiasis, ie, sleeping sickness or narcolepsy), but in other places, such attempts have ended in failure. In the process of treatment of Anopheles quadrimaculatus in Florida, despite spending nearly a year, there is still no effect because the sterile male competition, however, is a normal individual, with no chance of mating The The same situation occurred during the treatment of Culex tarsalis in California. The problem with this technique is that radiation can make mosquitoes weak, and (or) shorten their life, and therefore can not attract females. Not all insects respond well to radiation exposure, which limits the use of insect control techniques.

There is also a strategy of “cytoplasmic incompatibility” (cytoplasmic incompatibility), sounds more complex than it itself. The method does not use radiation, but with a disease called “Wolbachia” (Wolbachia) bacteria infected mosquitoes. This bacterium can infect arthropods, including a large part of the insects, as well as some nematodes. They can live inside insect cells, including egg cells and sperm cells. When the spermatozoa infected with Wolbachia are combined with the uninfected eggs, zygotes can not survive. Effect assurance. In 1967, the city of Aobo in Myanmar is the use of this method, in 9 weeks to successfully eliminate the Culex quinquefasciatus (scientific name: Culex quinquefasciatus). However, when wild mosquitoes are also infected with Wolbachia, this method will fail: if the eggs and sperm are infected by the same strain, or the eggs are infected and the sperm is not infected, then they combine the zygotes Will survive and grow into new males and females, the latter’s eggs are also immune to Wolbachia. On the other hand, high density cultivation of infected mosquitoes in the laboratory is still a big problem: studies of malaria mosquitoes in the Gambia show that individuals grown at high densities are difficult to compete for low-density or natural growth individual. The mosquitoes used are needed to be cultivated in large quantities and cheaply, but if the costs are too low, they may not be able to compete with wild males and will eventually fail.

There is another problem: because we do not want to release vampire female mosquitoes, so birth control technology Ye Hao, other methods Ye Hao, we all need in the laboratory to cultivate mosquitoes before being released, in some way Will be one of the female mosquitoes removed. Unfortunately, the sex ratio in mosquitoes is 50/50, so it is necessary to come up with a way to separate male and female. The method used by scientists at the outset is simply no longer primitive: the pups of male mosquitoes and female mosquitoes are slightly different in color and size, so they can be sorted by artificial or machine with a filter to ensure that only male mosquitoes Was sent to radiation and then released. It is depressing that this screening method is not effective for malaria mosquitoesThe pupae of the two are of the same size. Even before this step, many money is spent in vain, because the laboratory of male mosquitoes and female mosquitoes consume the same amount of resources. It can be said that less than half of the insects will be released in the insect control program, and that the actual input is twice theoretically invested. If we want to use insect control technology to eliminate media mosquitoes around the world, we need to release a very large number of sterile male mosquitoes, the high cost will have to consider the issue.

Is there any way to ensure that only male mosquitoes are cultivated, or can they be killed in advance? Yes, use “genetic sexing lines” (GSS). This is a technique that has been used for a long time, and the principle is to mark a dominant choice – a gene that enables the holder to survive under fatal conditions – to a male sex chromosome. A successful example is the real “MACHO” (meaning of a healthy man in Spanish): an Anopheles albimanus strain with an anti-insecticide gene on male chromosomes. Mosquitoes usually have the same XY chromosome as humans, and only males have a Y chromosome. When dealing with a pile of MACHO eggs with insecticides, you can kill 99.9% of the females. In the late 1970s, in El Salvador, this approach ensured that one million mosquitoes could be used daily to control the number of wild mosquitoes. The clearance was almost successful until the mosquitoes in other countries moved again. No matter what technology we chose in the end, we should be able to spread to the world. Despite the proximity to success, the genetic sex line technique still does not address the problem of radiation that will lead to a decline in the competitiveness of many male mosquitoes.

The latest technology completely skips the radiation. The technique, known as “RIDL”, is an abbreviation for “Release of Insects Carry Dominant Lethals”, invented by the entomologist Luke Alphey. In RIDL technology, male mosquitoes do not have to be exposed to radiation, so they are as healthy as wild male mosquitoes, and are equally fertile. However, they carry a deadly gene in their bodies that can cause larvae to die before they grow into vampire adults. At present, RIDL technology involves a gene called “tTAV” (tetracycline repressible activator variant, which can inhibit the activator variant), can produce a toxic protein, blocking the insect cell organelles activity, so that other genes can not be activated, Which leads to insect death. This technique works only in the cells of the mosquito itself, and the resulting protein is digested and degraded after being eaten by other animals, so that there is no harm to any animal that predicts the mosquito and its larvae. This is a completely non-toxic system. “But wait a minute, how did these mosquitoes grow into labs in the lab?” Maybe you will ask that. The answer is tetracycline (Tetracycline), this common antibiotic is also tTAV antidote. In laboratory cultivation, researchers use tetracycline to feed male mosquitoes, so that they can develop into adult, but to the field, they and their offspring will not live. At present, RIDL technology is being used against mosquitoes in southern and South America, and the number of dengue mosquitoes has been significantly reduced; Brazil is also using the technology to prevent the spread of card card virus.

Scientists have also developed a new technology to deal with the Mediterranean flies (Ceratitis capitata), the future may also be used for the prevention and control of media mosquitoes. This is a female-specific RIDL technique, the principle is: a male carrying a gene can produce a protein, in the absence of antidote, this protein will only kill the female. In this system, the female with the modified male mating, will produce completely fertile eggs, but the female offspring will die in the larvae, only male offspring can survive to adult. These males carry the modified genes and continue to mate with fewer females. In this way, people simply release a male, you can trigger the target population in the chain reaction, so that the number of generations to reduce.

RIDL is a magical strategy that has no detrimental effect on the environment or non-target creatures, and even makes it unnecessary to deal with radiation. However, because the technology involves genetically modified, that is to say that the modified mosquito is essentially transgenic animals, which means that some “recidivists” will try to stop them, and some even spread quite imaginative lies , While the media are often unable to distinguish between facts and lies, or simply not interested. Most of the stories worry about mosquito release after flying around and bite the local residents. Some articles claim that these mosquitoes are vaccinated against humans for vaccination against the disease, and if that is the case, it is wonderful. It is also ridiculous that some people claim that it will be mutated after these mosquito bites. Some people even claim that neonatal small head malformations are not caused by the card card virus, but because of those who are released mosquitoes, and said the disease is “loose gene syndrome.” In fact, these people have denied the real existence, caused by the card card virus neonatal small head deformity problem is to intimidate people away from genetically modified, but also in the absence of the disease, And better sell their high priced organic products. This is a shameless use of real human suffering. Fortunately, you will now understand a very important fact: male mosquitoes do not bite people – it can almost be used to refute all the above mentioned absurd description of insects.Male mosquitoes will not suck blood, in fact, will avoid the human; and because the only male mosquitoes, so that the insects will be hurt to hurt the views of mankind is completely nonsense.

Does these technologies mean that we can get rid of pesticides once and for all? Not to that level. Keep in mind that both insect control techniques and RIDL require more male mosquitoes to be released than wild male mosquitoes. Whether we cultivate infertility or genetically modified male mosquitoes how efficient, as long as the excessive number of wild populations, then these technologies will never be able to play a practical role. On the contrary, we need to use pesticides to the number of wild populations down, down to a certain threshold, in order to make insect control technology and RIDL work. In addition, if we want the whole planet to get rid of these species, the male mosquito will have to cover their entire distribution range, which means very broad space. Of course, there is progress that is good, even if we can not eliminate all the disease in the world media mosquitoes, we have also made the worldwide mosquito disease mortality rate dropped significantly.

But wait a minute! There is a technique that eliminates pathogens without compromising carriers and the environment, and does not require the delivery or cultivation of insects. First of all, let me introduce Chagas disease (also known as Chagas disease), by the American trypanosoma (scientific name: Trypanosoma cruzi) caused by a disease. The insects of the American trypanosomes are the species of Triatominae, of which the two most potent species are the genus Triatoma infestans and the Rhodnius prolixus. Cones are also known as “kisses” because they like to bite the area near the human mouth to suck blood. They also have a discomfort habit – after eating began to excrete. Moreover, when the bites of people caught when the wound, they will get their feces into the wound, causing infection. Chagas disease can bring some potentially fatal symptoms, such as ventricular enlargement. Scientists have experimented with insect control techniques on the bugs, but later have a new control strategy, the paratransgenesis. Unlike genetically modified insects that produce a protein (genetically modified), this new technology is a genetic modification of symbiotic microbes in insects. In this case, the insects have a symbiotic bacterium, Rhodococcus rhodnii, which produces vitamins and other substances that are not available from blood-based foods. Genetically modified bacteria are easy, so scientists have developed genetically modified organisms that produce toxic proteins (for cones). If you use the modified Pseudomonas syringae to feed long red cone bugs, the latter will be immune to the American trypanosomes, no longer become a carrier of transmission. Bacteria can also be easily cultivated in large quantities, thus omitting the problem of insect delivery. Most of all, the infected worms will pass the transgenic symbiotic bacteria to the offspring: the larvae of the bugs are often eaten with adult feces, which ingest the mushroom into the body (the bacteria can not be in our human blood vessels Surviving, so neither harm us nor bring any benefits). The new technology is promising, and the cones containing the transgenic pests of Rhodococcus sp. Are put into the place where the American trypanosomes are raging. The end result is that these parasites are completely destroyed and the bugs are safe and the whole ecosystem will not affected. Genetically modified symbiotic bacteria techniques may also be used elsewhere, and scientists are working on the development of genetically modified organisms that apply to other species, such as the use of a genetically modified fungus to immunize malaria parasites against malaria parasites.

Here you should have a clear idea of ​​whether a mosquito species should be eliminated and whether it is feasible to do so. If you have a similar problem with other insects, such as bugs, cockroaches, etc., maybe you can try to answer yourself. Can you ask yourself: what species in these insects are really harmful? Is insect practicing technology (SIT) viable? Is there any other way to deal with the disease? If you are interested in such a problem, you can consider working in areas such as medical entomology, epidemiology, genetics, or, of course, medicine, and perhaps the Nobel Prize I mentioned will one day.

What should we do at the same time?

eradication of disease in the global media mosquitoes, whether or not to do, and whether it is not a good idea, have a long distance with reality. Before that, the best way is to do local eradication. If you have a small pond, put some goldfish, koi or guppy fish to eat mosquito larvae, no need to use mosquitoes. Pesticides are another less desirable option because those beneficial insects will be killed. But in emergency situations can also be used as appropriate, such as the current use of pesticides in Brazil to fight against the card card virus … … Of course, not these chemicals lead to neonatal small head deformity – no matter how the conspiracy theorist said The statement is completely unconfirmed. Most of the pesticides currently used are non-toxic to humans. For mosquitoes that accumulate in the water of the container, always clean the container or drain the water. Pay attention to any place where you can accumulate rainwater, from small bowls of animals to vases, from old tires to plastic bags or canvas. The mosquitoes from these corners are the first to bite you, so everything you do is to contribute to the protection of public health. The most important thing is that this is protecting yourself. When you go deep into a place where mosquito-borne diseases are raging, remember to spray insects on the skin or clothing and spray mosquito nets when you sleep. For children, the role of mosquito nets is very important because they are inInfection with malaria and other diseases when the most serious symptoms.

For more information, consult your local Infectious Disease Prevention Agency or mosquito-controlled local site, or consult your local professionals to listen to their recommendations on mosquito control in the area. You can also learn about disease information with mosquitoes or other insects on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (Any day)

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