A lot of food in the current TV series, novels are playing “through”, then in the different dynasties of the ancients on the table, what should be the food?
Here we come to take the time of science and technology daily machine, through the long river, into the ancients kitchen look at it.
Now a wide variety of crops, in addition to often appear in our table food, a variety of strange food also people overwhelmed. Can be said that no eat, only think of. This richness often extends to costume drama. TV series can often see such a scene, regardless of the characters in the Tang and Song Yuan Ming dynasty which dynasties, the protagonists are all face full table full of dishes, watching the audience saliva DC, can not help but sigh, the ancients of the food really Yes. But in fact the reunification of the six countries, do anything they can not even eat a tomato fried eggs can not eat.
staple food articles
rice, pasta Han primitive society there only appeared
China to become domesticated wild rice cultivated rice for a long time. China is currently found in the Neolithic period there are many relics of rice, determined by the carbon 14, which, Hunan Road, Yu Chan rock ruins, Jiangxi years fairy cave and bucket ring site in the rice remains have more than 10,000 years of history, Zhejiang Pujiang mountain ruins in the rice remains more than 9000 years of history, and Zhejiang Yuyao Hemudu site found the number of rice remains amazing, more rich, has been 7,000 years of history.
Obviously, with the domestication and cultivation of rice in parallel, rice edible history is very long, but also because not only can steam, cook rice, rice gruel, you can also wine, milling, made all kinds of pastries, Has become one of the protagonists in China, especially in the southern region.
Rice is native, but another big staple crop is wheat. Nanjing Agricultural University, China Agricultural Civilization Research Institute, Associate Professor He Hongzhong told the Science and Technology Daily reporter, far before the Xia Dynasty, wheat through the “Eurasian Prairie” or “the former Silk Road” into China. And when the wheat has just appeared when people can not eat bread, noodles, because the emergence of pasta and wheat production, processing technology development.
Rotation at the latest to the late Eastern Han Dynasty gradually in the Yellow River Basin, the emergence of sieve powder tools and the use of grinding with the rotation, but also the Eastern Han Dynasty flour processing technology has made significant progress. So the Eastern Han Dynasty has been the embryonic form of Chinese flour noodles, was collectively referred to as the cake, because the noodles in the “soup” cooked, so called soup cake. The Eastern Han Dynasty Liu Xi “release name diet” in the cake; North Wei Jia Si Xie “Qi Min Yao Shu” recorded in the “water cited cake” is a one foot off, thin as “leek leaves” boiled food. To the occasion of the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the food market, noodles on the market as many as 10, there are meat, salt noodles, Tongpi cooked noodles, etc., and even the earliest “noodles.” And to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, noodles varieties are more numerous, varied, there are noodles, noodles, noodles, spiced noodles, octopus face, dan noodles, Iraqi government, noodles, hot noodles … … is a large number of modern noodles basis.
In addition to noodles, the people of the Eastern Han Dynasty can also eat bread, because this time fermentation technology has been widely used in pasta production. He Hongzhong said that the original bread, although the shape is smooth hemispherical bulge and produced by the fermentation of dough, but with today’s bread is different, it may be stuffing. Probably in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, only the emergence of solid bread, as a direct source of northern staple food today. Institute of Natural Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences assistant researcher Du Xinhao pointed out that the popularity of pasta enriched the variety of food, changed the diet of the northern region, the main types of food began to enrich, and gradually formed a unique pasta culture.
If you like to eat “leek scrambled eggs”, then you have a good friend, because the leek is a native of our vegetables, in the Western Han Dynasty when you can eat, because the Western Han Dynasty “Salt and Iron theory” has appeared This dish. China’s prehistoric period has begun to plant rape, gourd and melon. In addition radish, melon, loofah, bamboo shoots, onions, ginger, etc. are also originating in China.
But if you love tomatoes scrambled eggs, soy fried potatoes, spicy chicken and other home cooking, then you may have to wait until the Ming and Qing Dynasties and even the Republic of China to eat. Because tomatoes, potatoes and peppers are out-and-out “exotic.” In addition, garlic, cucumber, spinach, carrots, pumpkin, purple cabbage, cauliflower, etc. also come from outside the domain.
Du Xinhao introduction, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers are American crops, are basically the Ming and Qing Dynasties through the sea from the southeast coast into our country. Their introduction enriches the types of vegetables in our country, but the role is not the same. PotatoesIn the early years, the main tomato was used as an ornamental crop, and the late Qing dynasty entered the garden as a vegetable, while the large-scale development was after the founding of new China; the pepper The introduction of the Chinese diet has played a subversive role, making the southwest of some areas formed a spicy food culture.
want to distinguish a vegetable in our country the approximate time, from its name can also see some clues, such as “Hu” Department of words: cucumber, walnut, peas, pepper, carrots and most of the two Han (“Fan”): “Fan” Department: tomato, sweet potato, pepper, guava, papaya and more for the Southern Song Dynasty to Yuan and Ming Dynasties by the “ship” into the “foreign” word system: onion, cabbage (cabbage) Cabbage), etc., mostly introduced by the Qing Dynasty and even modern.
Pre-Qin Pei Pei Li Xing Mingqing popular “foreign fruit”
eat a meal, eat some fruit even more perfect , Although the ancient Chinese vegetables a little lack of points, but the fruit can be a little bit. He Hongzhong said that we usually common fruit only coconut, banana, pineapple, durian, grapes, pomegranates, strawberries and other from the introduction of the outside world, the other most of our local production.
From the historical point of view, the pre-Qin period has begun to cultivate, planting fruit trees. In the “poem” “Shan Hai Jing” and other ancient books, peach, plum, pear, dates, plum and other traditional Chinese fruit trees have appeared in the orchard. In Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Yunnan, Shanxi, Hubei and other places, have been unearthed ancient peach core, from the Shang Dynasty to the Qin and Han dynasties have, we can see how long the Chinese people eat peach history.
Qin and Han Dynasties, fruit consumption increased significantly. Sima Qian “Historical Records Chuan Chuan Chuan Biography” records: “An Yi thousands of jujube; Yan, Qin Qianjiang chestnut; Shu, Han, Jiangling thousand trees orange; Huaibei, Changshan has south, river between the thousands of trees Hagi … …” This shows Jujube, chestnut, orange, pear has been widely planted at the time.
Pre-Qin period, foreign fruit gradually into the Central Plains region, such as grapes. In the modern botany classification, grapes have three species of Eurasian, East Asian and American species. China is more common in East Asia grape that wild grapes. But we are familiar with daily and edible and cultivated grapes, mostly from the Eurasian Eurasian species. He Hongzhong pointed out that according to the current archaeological, literature and research to determine the introduction of grapes for the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, the time to enter the Central Plains in the Warring States period.
Although the ancients can eat grapes very early, but in order to eat watermelon in the summer but also until after the Tang Dynasty, the origin of watermelon in the arid desert of Africa, the Egyptian spread to the small Asia, Persia into the east by the north; Afghanistan, Vietnam Pamir plateau, along the Silk Road into the Western Regions, Uighur, Du Xinhao said, watermelon seeds to the mainland of China in 953 years (five generations of ten countries after Zhou Guangshun three years) before. During the Song Dynasty (960 – 1279), watermelon from north to south spread throughout China.
Ming and Qing Dynasties, people can choose more fruit, “foreign fruit” gradually popular. Pineapple, papaya, Annona, etc. are the introduction of this period, especially in the introduction of the most successful pineapple.
Pineapple (alias pineapple, pear, pear), native to South America Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay along the dry tropical mountain, acclimated for the Indians. In 1605 by the Portuguese into Macau, and then by Guangdong into Fujian and Taiwan, Guangdong “Dongguan County” (1639) and Lin Qianguang “Taiwan Chronicle” (1687 years) “yellow pear” records; At the end of the century spread to Guangxi, spread to Yunnan in the early 19th century.