“Science everyone” | micro-count what look at the wonderful world under the micro-photography

Zhang Chao, Master of Astrophysics, is currently working in the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, “China National Astronomy” magazine editorial department, responsible for educational activities, as well as editing and so on. The “cloud and the atmosphere phenomenon”, editor of “wild legend” photography collection, popular science “entertainment is also scientific”, writing popular science books “wind to electricity”, micro photography works won the first national science photography contest second prize, International “Little World”, “Biological World” micro photography awards. Photographs of Bali under the sand Star Wars Saipan’s star sand Inner Mongolia Badan Jilin’s sand Hawaii sand holding a sand inside in the end there will be many stories The If you use a microscope, you can enjoy the magic of the world in the sand. When you play on the beach, you may not know that the sand on the beach is made of white, yellow crystal clear quartz particles, which are mixed with a variety of marine debris, such as small shells, sea urchins, small conch, With the naked eye is not aware of their existence. If you have the opportunity to play on the tropical island, you will also see a white sandy beach, where the sand is almost all coral broken particles – this also thanks to the sea parrot fish, it is they kept eating Coral, only to form a beautiful coral sand. There is a beach, it is a masterpiece of volcanic – volcanic rocks mixed with a large number of olivine, weathering after the formation of green thin sand, polished in the sea under the smooth particles. There is also a beach, every grain of sand is a small star, it is amazing? These are the masterpieces of the foraminifera in the ocean, this sand is called “Star Sand”, is the world’s only a few coast specialty. Is the sand of the ocean so colorful and how will the inland sand be? In some of the sand in Inner Mongolia, we can find a lot of round clear sand under the dune, the wind grinding effect is much stronger than the water, so the ball more sand in the inland sand, the desert to see. If you go to the desert to play, do not forget to take a little sand as a memorial, long sand is also a colorful story, under the microscope, yellow sand particles such as glass ball rounded pure, but also often can see a variety of colors agate embellishment. If you find the stream of sand, it also has the opportunity to find the baby – the stream of sand and more without a long time to polish, sand edges and corners, but thin to find, it is possible to find crystal clear crystal Oh! Microscopic photography in the chondrite meteorite in a variety of pellets, that is more than four billion years ago, the solar system in those small particles, miniature miniature planet micro-count what, Look at photographers Many people think that micro-photography Well, that is higher than the macro camera shooting means, and will use the microscope to shoot, those objects made the slightest finished just fine. There are a lot of people think that macro shooting is difficult enough, micro photography is not difficult? In fact, it is not, the difficulty of micro-photography is not very high, but the use of equipment and shooting methods, and people’s habits are completely different. What is the doorway? Let me one by one. 01 choose the camera, entry like micro photography need what kind of camera? It should be said that what kind of camera can be engaged in micro-photography, and different camera use also have similarities and differences. In the use of the camera to take a micro picture, you need to connect with the microscope or microscope lens, there are two ways to connect, the first is called after the eyepiece photography, is to use the camera lens in the eyepiece of the screen to shoot. This camera requires a small camera lens, in general, mobile phones, card machines for this shooting, especially for IXUS series with a zoom card machine like a zoom. Shooting method is very simple, first in the microscope to see a clear picture, and then the camera lens at the microscope eyepiece, with automatic mode, auto focus can be. Because of the lens structure, sometimes need to adjust the camera position up and down until the screen is large and clear, you can press the shutter to shoot. If the light is dark, you can make yourself a sleeve, or with a tripod to fix, to meet the slower shutter shooting. If you use SLR, micro-like interchangeable lens camera, we can use the second method, called the telephoto photography method, directly remove the camera lens, remove the microscope eyepiece, and then through a simple device to the camera and The microscope is connected together (this device is easy to buy, such as the Canon camera to use the microscope to EOS mouth can be), the general microscope only supports APS frame camera, if full-frame camera, there will be a big black circle , Only a small number of microscopes can support full-frame camera (usually because there is a beam of internal beam), so with the APS camera is enough to deal with most of the subject matter. Snow under the photographed magnificent 02 press the shutter, need to wait If the daily photography is a shutter photography, then the micro-photography in most cases Is the slow door photography, because the microscope was connected, the camera can be fixed properly, do not have to consider the problem of trembling, so you can rest assured that ISO to get high quality. I generally use the Canon 600D to shoot, most of the shooting parameters are like this: M block shooting, ISO100, shutter speed 2 seconds, or 5 seconds. Why choose 2 seconds to 5 seconds such a time? First of all, although the camera has been stable enough, but the vibration plate and shutter vibration, and press the shutter when the force, will have an impact on the stability of the image easy to ghosting. Of course, the use of the shutter line plus the reflector preliminarily, can partially solve this problem, but the shutter movement will still produce jitter, and good in this jitter is not dramatic, and will soon decay, so the appropriate extension of the shutter time, will offset The effect of jitter. However, too long exposureIs to bring the undercurrent noise, so exposure time should not be too long. Some people often ask, ISO and shutter are selected, then the aperture set how much? It is noted that the microscope is connected to the camera, the microscope’s objective lens acts as a camera lens, and most of the microscope lens is iris structure, because the maximum aperture of the microscope objective lens is the best resolution, the use of aperture Reduce imaging resolution. So the aperture is a fixed value, and the need to convert the parameters can be obtained, so we can ignore the aperture when shooting images, but more than a few shot, try out a suitable exposure parameters. photographic photography under the beautiful crystal 03 no more than a few shot a few photographic photography is a kind of scientific photography, and its shooting strategy is different from ordinary photography, even And macro photography is also very different. Many photographic works are not just a photo shoot out, there may be multiple photos of the joint. For example, some very low brightness target, the need for a long exposure time, bringing a lot of noise, quality has been a great loss, so the use of multiple continuous shooting, superimposed noise reduction can greatly improve the quality, similar Methods are dark field deduction method. Microscopic photography due to the high number of times, shooting the depth of view is very small, even shrink aisle, depth of field is also very limited, but because of the diffraction law constraints, reducing the image resolution. So for the big depth of field shooting, the use of focus on stacking technology, that is, from top to bottom in turn, later through the software, the clear part of the superposition to form a panoramic picture. These techniques are rarely used in ordinary photography. What are the small haze particles in the air? From the microscope 1000 times (visual) shooting, there are complex, there are biological particles, mineral, different shapes, looks shocking 04 light changes, beyond imagination, the use of micro-photographic light than ordinary photography complex Many, Mingtang varied. Such as dark field effect shooting, the use of dedicated dark field condenser, the use of Dindal scattering effect, you can shoot the background dark, the main bright effect, and the resolution than the average micro-shooting even higher. Polarized shooting is a special technique to shoot the crystal, the use of two polarizers orthogonal, so that will shoot the refractive characteristics of the crystal highlights, creating a colorful color. For the photographer, will appreciate this magical effect, for the researchers, you can use these colors to engage in analytical work. High-power photomicrographs exist high-resolution and high contrast can not have both the problem, the use of light technology, you can achieve the resolution and contrast relative double high effect. There are common differences, Huffman interference, differential interference and other methods, in which the use of the difference between the use of ring structure to achieve a lower resolution of the high contrast, the edge of the object is very clear, but also transparent objects inside the fuzzy image clearly The Differential interference is in the higher resolution part of the realization of high contrast, shooting out of objects with three-dimensional relief effect, the details become more significant. And some of the ordinary photography in the use of light can also be reflected in the micro-photography, such as oblique lighting, multi-color lighting, especially soft light technology used in photomicrography, you can highlight the details of high-reflective objects , Because of the application of these technologies, so that the effect of micro-photography constantly refresh, to achieve a new height. “Science everyone” column Contributors E-mail: sciencetougao@sina.com Contributions Please indicate the name, unit, position

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