“Science everyone” column: tell you how dinosaurs are made

> Embryos

occupy the entire Mesozoic dinosaurs wide variety, all kinds of dinosaurs have their own way of life. Its growth process is complex. However, if you start from the macro, dinosaurs on the pipeline at least six processes: embryos, development, courtship, mating, fertility and death; in micro, I will follow the fossil evidence to introduce the details, and strive to restore a most authentic dinosaur era.

Embryos are the beginning of life, but the original scientific community is still controversial dinosaurs are ovarian. Until 1923, the United States New York Museum of Natural History, the third Central Asia expedition expedition to Mongolia to collect fossils. July 12 morning, the team Olsen found in the camp near the world’s first nest dinosaur eggs, moving Olsen back to camp, excited about the captain Andrews said: “dinosaur eggs! Dinosaur eggs”! The result was everyone laughing that he found the stone potatoes. Day 2, Ousen’s repeated insistence, Andrews only to the fossil point, the results he found that this is indeed dinosaur eggs, and the owner of the egg is the original angle dragon, with the secret of egg dragon fossils. This is a landmark discovery, from which we know that the dinosaurs are really ovarian.

Cemetery baby Hatching Egg Long Egg Long Embryonic Olsen pulled down the first piece of domino, and shortly thereafter, paleontologists found all kinds of dinosaur eggs all over the world. , As in China’s Henan Xixia, Guangdong Heyuan two found tens of thousands. But dinosaur eggs how much, but the eggs contain the embryo is extremely rare. Embryo can tell us a lot of precious information, such as the initial development of dinosaurs, after the ability to break the shell and so on. At present, there have been more than 10 kinds of dinosaur embryos, such as the original angle dragon, secret eggs dragon, Dazhen Long, Zimu Long, Asian crown dragon and Tyrannosaurus class.

Egg in the bone, bone to see the dragon Dinosaur embryos in the shell before and after there are two cases, one is the shell after the ability to have an independent life, such as Tyrannosaurus class, sickle dragon class slow; the other is the shell after the need for parents to take care of a period of time , Such as the duckling dragon class mother of the dragon, the Asian crown dragon and Lai’s dragon. We judge whether the small dinosaurs can live independently, mainly to see the beginning of the root of calcification cartilage accounted for the proportion of total. Such as the mother of the dragon and the Asian crown dragon this ratio were 74% and 72%, in addition to about 10% complete ossification, the gap between the two organizations up to 7 times, which means that the young dragon’s bone joints are still in semi-development state, Soft lying on the ground can not stand or run, can only rely on parenting, this time the young dragon is also no ability to resist natural enemies, all by luck and walking rivers and lakes. After the dinosaur shelling began to develop, and the growth rate of dinosaurs is not uniform, and its “adolescence” expansion was very alarming, which can be from the (5) The dinosaur skeleton cross section looks like a trombone. When I first saw the duckling dragon eggs, only that dinosaur era is really crazy, crazy crazy age, a diameter of up to 25 cm dinosaur eggs, actually can grow 10 meters long dinosaurs. There are many examples of which can be said here to talk about the two camps of vegetarian meat on behalf of: Liang Long and Tyrannosaurus rex.

Liang Long is born in the ups and downs in the reign of terror, their young dragon is absolutely crazy growth: shell when it is about 1 meter long, remove the slender tail and neck, the body is not much. But the first year, the length of the young dragon increased by 3 times the weight of up to 0.5 tons; the third year of body length up to 10 meters, while the weight increased to about 3 tons; the first 10 years before and after adult, body length has reached 27 Rice, weighing more than 20 tons. Liang Tong at this time almost can effectively protect themselves, so the development rate began to slow down. In fact, if it is so developed, Liang Long young children’s childhood is kept in the mouth, in addition to sleep, are eating, the food from the money, pine, moss, mushrooms to the size of ferns, almost all-encompassing.

Liang Long baby stolen dragon egg embryo

and the top of the food chain as Tyrannosaurus, after the birth corpuscles of hunting, its growth rate is quite amazing: teenage Tyrannosaurus average annual An increase of 767 kg, this growth rate can last more than four years time. Well-known Tyrannosaurus in the 14-year-old to 18 years of age can increase by nearly 3 tons, to adult when its total weight is at least 5 tons or more.

Comparison of these two kinds of shells after the survival of the main dinosaurs, need to be taken care of the development of dinosaurs is also not slow, such as a birth was held as a pearl on the pearl dragon, the thigh bone with The growth of the change is about 6 cm; 6 weeks 20 cm; 1.5 years old 53 cm; 3 years old 58 cm, 4 years old when 80 cm. From this it seems that those large forces activities, the face of ups and downs have parents to help their dinosaurs also have a sense of crisis, or even increase the high speed itself to better protect themselves. In addition, there is one thing that can not be forgotten, many reptiles in their life which is growing, the older, the greater the volume. This is reflected in the cell replacement, we humans, when it reaches the adulthood to stop growing, some cells die no longer replace the newborn, and the reptile from the untimely growth of the case, the continuous replacement of cells, that is,They have been growing. So now sporadic found some huge fossils, such as the Americas found a up to 2.4 meters, about a door so big sauropod spar fossils, may be some kind of known sauropods longevity version, not a new variety. When the dinosaur adult, naturally, on the mercy courtship, recently there is such a point of view, that the evolution of life is a greater power from the choice of sex. “

So what kind of love will it look like a hundred years ago? In fact, all kinds of dinosaurs have their own unique courtship ceremony. Duckle dinosaurs may rely on “musical instruments” to attract the female dragon. For example, the long side of the long dragon has a unique ridge, the corolla long in the nose, which filled the cavity, the air from the nostrils inhalation, through the cavity to reach the lungs, which constitutes a tubular sound device. Recently, researchers from the National Museum of Natural History in New Mexico and the Sandia National Laboratory have constructed a precise model of the ridge, which produces a very strange resonance, like the Alpine foothills. sound. This voice can not only make the Chiba dragon mutual recognition, early warning, but also in the breeding season for the heart of the dragon blowing a prehistoric song it.

swollen head dragon. png

Corner dragon gorgeous neck shield

Liang Longqun

swollen head dragon may be more rude. You can pack tickets, they must be thick, armored piercing head to fight each other to compete for the opposite sex, and today in the quarrel season with the behavior of goats are similar. However, a recent report pointed out that swollen head of the head can not touch each other, otherwise it will lead to severe concussion, but should be the impact of each other’s body, so the effect is better, not easy to fatal.

Corner, like triangular dragon, pentagonal dragon and open horns and the like, they should also like swollen head dragon so bumps, somewhat similar to today’s courtship season male elk, the angle interlocking squeeze. In addition there is more important to show off the capital, that is, after their corner of the shield, the tall shield is likely to have a very bright colors, like the Peacock tail is so eye-catching.

As for those big, long neck, long tail sauropods, they should not rude collision, the late 80s, there is a view that these bizarre tail function can be used to courtship or communication. For example, there are about 40 to 50 small torsion beam, the tail of the last 2 meters cross-section width of only 32 mm, weighs about 2 kg. Researchers through computer simulation studies show that if it wields the tail, the end of the speed can exceed the speed of sound, may be able to produce some similar to the whip issued by the pop sound, but more than these pop sound 2000 times. Moreover, the base of the tail can often be found to have some pathological damage, which may be caused by repeated severe repetitive movement caused by, it is likely that this is used to beat each other caused by courtship.

trombone, impact, whipping, this is the era of dinosaurs filled with an ancient romance romance.

Far more than other themes. Especially the people of the sex more difficult to say, when the thought of two 80-ton wrist dragon in the mating, it is also called aphasia, but this is still a serious face to face. But the first thing to note is that mankind has not yet seen a dinosaur genital fossil, all of all, just suppose. From the same reptile, we speculate that the reproduction of dinosaurs should be similar to today’s crawling class. Male dragon has a pair of reproductive adapter, known as the semi-penis, usually hidden in the tail of the base, that is, behind the cavity of the vent hole. In addition, there is a class of dinosaurs may not have sexual reproduction, that is, mating fertilization way to produce the next generation, this reproductive method known as parthenogenesis, or sexual reproduction. “Jurassic Park” inside the phrase “life will only find a way out” is reflected here. This type of dinosaur is usually only a single sex, as long as the environment is appropriate, the female ovaries in the meiosis after the chromosome will multiply, the formation of two sets of chromosomal eggs.

Mating wrist dragon, would it be so shocking? 80 tons of VS. 80 tons of the concept of the equivalent of two groups of 16 weight of 5 tons of African elephant high speed mutual stroke, this scene is really aphasia. It is possible that the position of the wrist dragon is the third support point when the tail is vacated as the front leg and the “tripod” with the legs. Because only the tail to bear a weight, wrist dragon mating posture may be established, as they make the sound, including the sound and the impact, must also be deafening, absolutely let the movie actor ashamed.

As for the beast in the Tyrannosaurus (you like to call Tyrannosaurus rex), the thought that no one would think about this marginal problem, surprise, Jurassic Museum to see this stunning scene: 2 pieces of Tyrannosaurus rumbling into a mating, which is certainly the world’s only case, and they use the back into the body position: mother Tyrannosaurus lying down, small Small, only 2 refers to the forearm almost touched the ground, while the buttocks towering, public Tyrannosaurus legs standing, is desperately working.A little bit admire this division, because the back is from the physiological anatomy close to the perfect way of sexual intercourse, it is common to mammals (naturally also applies to humans), and even dinosaurs.

And the other animal feet, such as small Pirates of the dragon, since their relationship with a bird is very close, then their mating way can also be from the current birds to find the answer. Birds are mating through brief contact of the genitals, but their mating is like acrobatics. Back to the small Pirates of the dragon, the dragon may be while maintaining a balance while climbing the female back, they beat the wings together, so that the body within a few seconds to maintain a stable posture, female dragon tail tilt, male dragon down, Exercise, get. Even refer to birds, some hand Pirates of the dragon class may be able to complete the mating in the air.

However, in fact we do not have any way to answer specific questions about dinosaur reproduction. The main reason is because the soft tissue is extremely difficult to form fossils, previously there was a report that “Heyuan found that male dinosaur genital fossils”, which is completely a farce, it is obviously a phalanx. Anyway, we still do not know the dinosaur internal or external organs of the real structure, but also completely unable to understand the two 80-ton wrist dragon how to correct the mating, anyway, they are wrist dragon way to complete. To know, wrist dragon this one itself survived about 25 million years!

We do not have a dinosaur mating sex video, and of course there is no dinosaur mother how to produce the dragon baby’s live. But this situation is not like the mating that basically rely on, all care of the dinosaur egg nest ruins, we can learn part of the dinosaur fertility, and hatching situation.

Dinosaurs are breeded to reproduce the offspring. In 1922, when Ossen found the dinosaur eggs that were ridiculed as “stone potatoes”, some people in the academia thought that dinosaurs were born with fowl. That is, after the incubation in the body to produce, or they can not imagine the existence of such a large egg, after all, is so large animals Ah. Unfortunately, dinosaur eggs are not large, the largest dinosaur eggs you can easily pick up. How did the dinosaur lay eggs? Playing bureaucratic, because the dinosaur family is huge, a wide variety of different types of dinosaurs in the way of laying will certainly be very different, and even the same species in different regions have different way of laying eggs.

Injured teeth dragon, is the kind known as delaying the evolution of millions of years of mammals, very smart dinosaurs. Living in North America, the teeth will be in the dry egg or marshes in the dry soil, rely on the egg tube down the power of the peristalsis easy to insert the deep into the soil, like you in the cake above the plug Strawberries. And the wounded teeth living in China is to choose the water side of the sand as a place to lay eggs, they first with a claw on the ground out of a pit, and then squat down to make the body into an upright or semi-upright state, and the egg into the egg Pit in the soft sand, and then with sand carefully put these eggs buried.

Egg Breast Embryo

Maternal Dragon Embryo

The way the eggs are laid between reptiles and birds. Paleontologists in China, Jiangxi, a female shelling dragon body cavity found two preserved shell eggs, confirmed that the dragon eggs dragon belongs to the class of dinosaurs have double the structure of the egg tube. This structure is between the existing crocodile and birds. It and the crocodile has a double egg tube, but arranged for each egg tube once a mature egg, which is more like only a single egg tube of the existing birds. From this point we can see that we have often wishful thinking that reptiles or birds to analogy dinosaurs is a very reckless thing.

As for the egg nest, the most typical is the construction of the mother. The mother of Latin literature called Maiasaura, she was extended to the mercy of the mother. Throughout the history of the ancient biology, it is so only once, the genus of the dinosaur is accused of the female attribute – the suffix is ​​the female saura rather than the male saurus. The reason why the mother of the mother was extended to the mercy of the mother, because of its fossil next to a near the bowl-shaped hillside nest, nest nest 15 young mothers dragon about 1 month, their teeth have Wear, verify that the mother takes care of the larvae, or bring the food to the nest, or take them to the nest for feeding and then back to the nest. The mother’s nest built the potted egg nest about 2 meters in diameter, below the pad of soil and gravel, the egg above the cover of some plants, to maintain a certain temperature, so that eggs hatch.

In addition to the natural hatching of the mother, there are automatic incubation hypothesis. Evidence is the discovery of Mongolian keel keel to lie on a nest of dinosaur eggs above. Like many modern birds in the nest, as it is under the 22 eggs arranged in a round. Only to see the eggs and eggs with two legs tightly curled up in the back of the body, which is exactly the same as the modern chicken hatching posture. In addition, its two forelimbs stretched to the rear side, showing the position of the guard nest. But recently the hypothesis has been challenged by the new theory that the burglar dragon is crouching in a pre-built egg nest center, regularly returning to the nest every time giving birth to a pair of eggs, and by 3, 6, 9 and 12 o’clock Of the azimuth, arranged in a multi-layer ring sequence, and then covered with fine sand, so that the hot Cretaceous sun let it hatch. Those who say these two who can not convince who, but enough to explain the development of the late Mesozoic dinosaurs, there is already a very suitable way of fertility, to make their own descendants far and wide.


Dinosaurs are the same, the same will be injured, hurt too heavy will hang up. It can be said that the fossils preserved, only a very small part isOld age, because the sick, bitten, poisoning, landslides, landslides and other reasons to die, so the ancient biologists often have to act as SCI responsibility: seemingly bland fossil, the cause of death like A red line, like, in the middle, the paleontologist’s responsibility is to expose it, clean it out from the stone, completely exposed.

duckbill will get cancer, the United States Ohio State University, northeast of the researchers in the bones of the duckbill found in the presence of cancer: 97 duckbill keel in a full 29 tumors The This may be related to the presence of carcinogenic substances in local coniferous trees. In short, these poor duckbill long endure the pain. Typhoon Dental, in the Tyrannosaurus Sue big mouth, you can see there are some less than 5 cm of abnormal teeth, they have been twisted, the teeth of the serrated also polished, showing a morbid Of the dark gray. This may be Sue’s dental disease, or the gums have been seriously injured, such as being the same or swollen head of the top, resulting in tooth deformity. But Sue late development of fine growth lines show that it has completed the growth, the famous “Su” Tyrannosaurus died at the age of 28 years.

Paleontologists through the dinosaur eggs and egg fossils of the slices to observe and analyze and found that many egg fossils are intact, the surface without the slightest crack, indicating that at that time is not incubated eggs, and sliced ​​observation there is no juvenile embryo, No embryo and no hatch, which must have the case. Finally, through a comprehensive analysis, that is the dinosaur mother trace elements poisoning, the body of iridium, strontium and other elements of high lead to a large number of dinosaur eggs are not easy to develop incubation.

Yurt Long Allite Dragon Hunting is a high risk behavior The most interesting is probably the death of the big Austrian. Big Austrian “Big Al” is a special dragon fossil found in 1991. Big Austrian is a minor individual, 95% complete, 8 meters long. Of which 19 bones are damaged, or show traces of the disease. BBC also specifically for this shot “big Austrian legend.” This piece is very classic, showing the paleontologists through the scarred fossils to restore the great Austrian life, the climax is a male big Austrian failure in the courtship, the larger body of female abnormal special dragon abandoned, but the effect of shooting more like Female special dragon in the escape from the rogue like. Finally, the big Austrian in a hunt in the hind legs, which means that it can not be hunted before injury, which is enough to fatal, so the big Austrian finally starved to death on the beach. In the BBC and the dragon concentric on the topic of the site, there is a small Austrian game called small game, you can control a small special dragon walk, prey, grow up and even can go to find female special dragon love. I played several times, the best record is as long as 2 tons, but then stepped on the quagmire (this is also a lot of dinosaur death reasons). The above is the process of dinosaur growth, these magical and magnificent life, is definitely worthy of our hearts for its appreciation. Suddenly, they have passed through time and space, but that elongated back, but in our hearts agitated … … now dinosaur research there are many unsolved mysteries and missing links, which depends on the new research methods and new fossils Find. To explore the long, this time we need your help, because full of curiosity and imagination you, is the big future of dinosaurs!

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