“Insight” in-depth exploration of Mars: understanding of the origin of the solar system class planet

图片来源:NASA 
图片来源:NASA 
Source: NASA & nbsp;

Remember “Mars Uncle Martin” What? The magic of Martin uncle always let the young we were crazy, and that distant red planet, then attract a lot of scientists and astronomical fans very sincere eyes. & nbsp;

For decades, our human exploration of Mars has never stopped. “Courage”, “opportunity”, “Phoenix”, “curiosity” and other detectors have landed on Mars. But all along, the human exploration of Mars are “floating on the surface.” We have a preliminary understanding of Mars’s various studies of the surface features of Mars on volcanoes, valleys, rocks, and soils. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently announced that “Insight” will join the team to explore Mars. The “new kid” will take a different path from the “predecessors”: it will explore the interior of Mars, so that scientists through Mars, to understand the solar system, including the Earth, including the origin and evolution of planets.

“InSight” is a very well-known name, very suitable for interstellar exploration. “InSight” is a very appropriate name, very suitable for interstellar exploration Of the title, and NASA is the main content of the task fit. In fact, InSight is an acronym for “internal exploration using seismic surveys, geodesy and heat transfer”. It is not just a Mars mission, but it also implies NASA’s understanding of the origins and evolution of the Earth. In the eyes of NASA, Mars is like a mountain of stone, scientists hope that through its internal deep structure of the detection, to solve the solar system planetary science in a basic problem – more than 400 million years ago, the solar system within the planet is How to form & nbsp;

In general, the formation of terrestrial planets is from a process called “accretion”. The initial core of the continuous capture, devour the surrounding matter, with the volume increases, the internal temperature will gradually rise and melt, and then with the cooling and recrystallization, gradually evolved into what we know today, including the core, mantle and crust Terrestrial planets. Although all terrestrial planets have similar structures, they are not exactly the same, there is no uniform template, and each planet comes through a process known as “differentiation” that becomes their current appearance. And for this process, scientists know little about it. The main goal of the “insight” mission is to explore the deep structure of the interior of Mars and to understand the “differentiation” of the planets to reveal the evolution of planets in the solar system. In addition, it is one of the goals of the “insight” mission to provide insight into similar activities on Earth by conducting in-depth research on tectonic activity and meteorite impact on Mars.

Source: Technology Daily & nbsp;

Why is Mars? Because it has a “good body”

图片来源:科技日报 
图片来源:科技日报 

The solar system has eight planets, and the Earth is similar to the brothers and more than one Mars, Mercury, Venus are also terrestrial planets. Why does NASA choose to learn about the evolution of terrestrial planets by Mars? Perhaps more than one reason, but the “insight” task project chief scientist, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Bruce Bennett’s view is absolutely the most authoritative. He pointed out that the choice of Mars is because it has a “good figure”. “Mars is not small, is appropriate”, Bennett this statement. & nbsp; How big is Mars? Diameter of 6794 km, is about half the diameter of the earth. This volume, it is NASA scientists in the eyes of the “perfect body.” First of all, it is large enough to support its early internal heating and differentiation process, and thus the formation of terrestrial planets. It can be said that the understanding of the evolution of Mars is basically applicable to Mercury, Venus and Earth. At the same time, it is small enough to lead to its geological activity is far from the Earth, Venus active, and thus after more than 40 million years after a long period of time still retains the evolution of imprint. Although Mercury is smaller than Mars, there may be evidence of the early formation of the planets, but it is too far away from the earth and too close to the sun, and now the human level of science and technology to visit Mercury, do not want to, let alone Explore the interior. & nbsp;

Because of having a “good figure”, Mars became the best target for scientists to understand the evolution of terrestrial planets. The thickness and stratification of the Martian crust, the density and stratification of the mantle, the size and density of the core, the rate of heat dissipation from the inside, and the deepest and most accurate record of the planetary processes in the solar system. It is like a “history book”, contains a lot of “secret, the truth”, the need for scientists to dig a little bit. & Nbsp;

six research projects, relying on two major research tool & nbsp;

“Insight” Mars, need to see what the scene to complete the class to reveal the inner solar system Planetary evolution process, looking for earth tectonic activities and meteorite impact clues these two tasks? NASA has set up six survey projects for the Insight, hoping that through these surveys, a glimpse of the mysteries of the deep structure inside Mars. The six survey items are: OKThe size and composition of the Martian earth core; determine the thickness and structure of the Martian crust; determine the composition and structure of the Martian mantle; determine the thermal state inside the Martian; measure the magnitude, rate and geographical distribution of the Earth’s internal activity; Meteorite impact rate. (SEIS) and heat flow probe (HP3), the two precision instruments – the seismograph (SEIS) and the heat flow probe (HP3). In accordance with NASA’s plan, the Inspector will land Mars on November 26, 2018, and land on Mars near the equator, placing the two instruments permanently on Mars. In addition, the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory will conduct a Rotation and Internal Structure Experiment (RISE), and scientists will use the radio transmission between Mars and Earth to assess the disturbance of Mars rotation around the axis. , The experiment will provide clues to the size of the study of the Martian kernel. Scientists hope that they can use these advanced instruments to detect Mars’s various “signs of life”: through SEIS to detect its “pulse”, through HP3 to measure its “body temperature”, through RISE Observe its “conditioned reflex”. These “signs of life”, both the growth of Mars billion years of history, but also opened the solar system within the planet to the mystery of the evolution of the mystery. One day, five days after May 5 next year, the “Insight” will be launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in central California and will be registered on the first Monday after Thanksgiving Day. Mars, then began to Mars “diagnosis of pulse temperature.” NASA predicts that scientists will have more than 29Gb of data in a Martian year (687 days, equivalent to 1.88 Earth years) after all instrument deployment is complete. By then, human exploration of Mars is expected to move towards a new height. (SEIS), by the French National Space Research Center, the Paris Institute of Geophysics, the Institute of Geophysics, the National Institute of Geophysics, the National Institute of Geophysics, , The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, the German Mark Planck Institute, the British Imperial College of Technology and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly build its sensitivity “heinous” enough to detect less than half the diameter of hydrogen atoms in the formation of the movement. SEIS will record the earthquake waves generated by the Martian earthquake or meteorite impact, and provide scientists with information about the Martian stratum. The heat flow probe, called heat flow and physical performance package (HP3), is provided by the German Aerospace Center. It is much more powerful than the tools such as the small shovels on the previous rover, and can measure the energy from the inside of Mars by digging deeper into the surface of Mars below 10 feet (3 meters) or even deeper. In the depth of Mars, scientists in another way “insight” Mars)

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