Do not, Cassini: the greatness of this plan

“Cassini” detector, launched on October 15, 1997, after 6 years and 8 months, 3.5 billion kilometers of long space travel, the smooth start of Saturn exploration mission, came to the earth Lots of photos and data. On September 15th, today it will rush into Saturn’s atmosphere and then burn with Saturn’s atmosphere after burning, ending the 13-year Saturn Quest. From the launch to the present Cassini No. 20 years of life may be considered to create a small history, let us have a very full understanding of Saturn. Also hope that everyone in reading this dry goods full of push, can appreciate the greatness of this plan. Cassini – Huygens mission is a collaborative project between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for the design, development and management of the project. Manufacturing, project operation and management at the Washington headquarters. Cassini – Huygens actually has two parts, the Cassini is the orbiter, the Huygens is the lander, of course not landing Saturn, but landing Saturn’s satellite Titan (Titan). In 2005, the Huygens landed the Titan in 2005, collecting the first-hand data of the Saturn satellite. Titan was also the second largest satellite in the solar system and was suspected of having a life because of its surface distribution With a large amount of liquid alkanes. NASA speculated that the ocean of liquid alkanes could support life because there was a similar atmospheric component in the early days of the earth, and that the life of the alkanes could survive there. On the 11th of September, at the final stage of the Cassini mission, Cassini took the last flight to the Titans. September 12, Cassini and NASA data transmission, the Titan final detection results to the Earth. After that, the Cassini will fly from the set of tracks on Saturn’s atmosphere as planned.

Interview with Titan is a small episode of the death of Cassini, as NASA’s orbit requires Titan to provide gravity, bringing the Cassini into the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Cassini is not a strict streamline shape, so in contact with Saturn after the atmosphere will begin to slow down, so that Cassini can be in the upper atmosphere of Saturn’s survival time longer. But for the Cassini, of course, torture, choose to cut into the corner of the larger track can let the detector quickly burned, and vice versa takes longer.

漫画 / 黄月
漫画 / 黄月
So, say goodbye, man.

Since the entry into Saturn’s orbit in 2004, the card has been used since the entry into the Saturn orbit. Since the entry into the Saturn orbit in 2004, the card Sini has been running here for 13 years, the number of plundered Titan up to 127 times, sometimes more recent. Earl Maize, director of the Cassini project at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, says the Cassini’s track has been running around Titan and has been crossed almost every ten years, this time Cassini The last time with Titan six Titans pass by.

NASA for the Cassini selected cemetery in the upper atmosphere of Saturn, first because of the first to ensure that the Titan Titan’s surface environment, so that it remains the most primitive state, and second, because Even the strict sterilization of the detector did not dare to ensure that the Earth’s life will not be introduced into the Titan environment. According to the Cassini survey, Titan is a very complex organic chemical plant, which is a natural organic chemistry laboratory, the universe from the inorganic environment to the organic environment, which is a breakthrough, and Titan is a potential The birth of life. After the mission of Cassini, NASA scientists hope that one day will be able to return to Saturn’s orbit again, and the task that is currently being propelled involves the detection of navigators on the terracotta sea The presence of biological signals. Titan has been proven to have a global liquid methane cycle, the planet found on all the chemical process and the present Earth is significantly different.

So far, the solar system outside the orbital planets have not been fully explored, travelers only 2 to do a brief fly, especially Uranus and Neptune, they are mainly composed of water, ammonia, methane. Jupiter, Saturn is almost composed of hydrogen and helium, and the Earth’s rock celestial bodies are essentially different.

text / Luo

Why did Cassini choose to self-destruction?

How will mankind study Saturn in the future?

Chinese national astronomy, walking the universe, and NASA Chinese connection Professor Michelle Blanche,

together to listen to the literary astronomical tutor of the interesting explanation of it.

Cassini’s family portrait

▉ & nbsp; Q1

Number of successors and “Cassini” What is the difference between the task? Is there any participation in China? (From @ I am sparse)

“fruitJuice “

First, the” Cassini “has

中国国家天文,漫步宇宙,和NASA中文连线了米歇尔·布兰克教授,
中国国家天文,漫步宇宙,和NASA中文连线了米歇尔·布兰克教授,
two successors

, but they will explore the Jupiter system.

European European Commission” Juice “(JUICE )

The mission will be launched in 2022, first to explore the Jupiter system, and then enter the Europa three “gamma Ni Mo De Si” track. Incidentally, “Juice” task is 10 years ago by me through “Laplace (LAPLACE) is proposed to open. Europa is ranked third in the Galileo satellite and is a “maritime satellite” that may have a fitness. The same year,

NASA will use the new super-carrier Rocket SLS (thrust over Saturn V rocket) launch

卡西尼团队全家福
卡西尼团队全家福
“Europa fast sail” number

. This task to invest more than 20 billion dollars, will be 45 times close leap of Europa “Europa” to study the satellite livability. Europa Clipper

Europa Galileo satellites in the second row, too the solar system with a possible addition to the Earth’s life Of the planet.

“Europa fast sail” number The mapping of the surface of the Europa to help scientists choose the landing point of the future landing mission, but the task has not yet received the required funds.This landing mission will be in the Europa’s multi-ice crust search life evidence. “Europa fast sail “There will be a study of Jupiter’s giant planet family members until 2034.

“果汁”号/JUICE
“果汁”号/JUICE

As to whether there is China, from now on, China and NASA’s official cooperation will be difficult, but the scientists It is clear that the European Union and the China Aerospace Agency will soon be able to negotiate further on the basis of the current excellent cooperation. ▉ & nbsp; Q2 “Cassini” was there when falling debris falling Saturn Saturn, Saturn which will pollute the environment you (from @? yani & nbsp;)

欧罗巴快帆
欧罗巴快帆

Image / NASA Pollution is extremely unlikely. The “Cassini” will enter Saturn with a very supersonic Layer, just a few minutes will melt and become ashes. I do not think any big organic molecules on the spacecraft can survive. In addition, Saturn is not a planet with a habitable planet, nor It is possible to give birth to life. This is why we decided to let “Cassini” was destroyed Saturn. The data and images returned at the last moment are approximate miles of Saturn’s number of kilometers?

(From @Frank)

Image / NASA

“Cassini” will start at the last point from the midpoint of the last transmission, in the

upper atmosphere That is, above the Genting.

▉ & nbsp; Q4

图片/NASA
图片/NASA
relevant reports mention the “Cassini” Saturn numbers fall, or at least give scientists leaving for analysis And research more than ten years of images, data and other content, is it true? In addition, it will give us what (before falling) more amazing discovery? (From the @ walk the universe)

work to the last moment of the Cassini No. picture / NASA

“Cassini” since July 2004 has been around Saturn orbit,

Its legacy includes 13 years of unique images and very valuable data. All of this is deposited into NASA’s planetary data system for scientists around the world. Everyone of interest has the opportunity to use the data obtained from the Cassini. In addition, the “Cassini” will be a dramatic way to end their mission. Since April, we have been studying the area between Saturn and the stars. This is the first time in the history of the “Cassini” mission.

“Cassini” access to a large number of unique data,

for the next 10 years to support the new Saturn system to explore the task , while helping to develop young scientists, so that they join To the ranks of giant planets to explore.

“Cassini” data analysis and finishing work will be launched in the coming year, to participate in the work of the number of doctor left me impressed. Several of these doctoral students are here. For Chinese planetary researchers, the ability to use the Cassini data is undoubtedly an excellent opportunity to help train a group of young scientists so that they can participate in the near future (about 10 years) Go to China Jupiter Quest Quest. I would be very pleased if the Beijing Branch of the International Space Science Institute could help.

图片/NASA
图片/NASA

Remember that the “Cassini” was the last to getOf the data – from the “magnificent end” orbit to the final subduction – may be the most compelling, after all, it is the closest contact with Saturn. Analysis of these data takes several years.

▉ & nbsp; Q5

would like to know, “Cassini” was how to communicate in real time when the fall in Saturn’s atmosphere, after an interval of So far, although it is “almost reached” the degree of real-time communication, but also feel very incredible. (From the @ fox)

<ccassin 's communication with the earth relies on

工作到最后一刻的卡西尼号 图片/NASA
工作到最后一刻的卡西尼号 图片/NASA
A very efficient high-gain communication antenna

(By the way, this technique consists of An Italian researcher funded by the Italian Space Agency). This communication antenna transmission power is not, the signal bundling is very good. When the “Cassini” is in the ground transmission mode, the antenna is required to the earth. At the last moment of the Cassini, the so-called “magnificent end chapter”, the ship will always point the communication antenna to Earth, transfer data until the last moment … … when the propeller no longer in Saturn The atmosphere to maintain the stability of the spacecraft, communication antenna will deviate from the earth, we will and “Cassini” lost. At this point, the “Cassini” mission end,

a few minutes later will burn out.

Farewell, “Cassini”! Is expected to Beijing time September 15 evening 19:45.

▉ & nbsp; Q5

Titan have the possibility of life how? (From the etiquette)

Huygens No.

about 19:00 on January 14, 2005 landing at 19:30 in Titan Titan, the entire decline process continued 2 hours and 27 minutes, and

survived 72 minutes on the surface of the Titan Titan , which is the first and only one in the outer solar system landing probe.

We have never detected the existence of extraterrestrial life anywhere in the universe. In view of this fact, I think the possibility of finding alien life in the future is very low, Titan “Titan”, Europa “Europa” or Titan II “Enkrados”. They are the leading candidates in this competition. I feel like this is vaguely. In fact, Titan and the other two satellites are different, because Titan’s celestial biology is more diverse . It has two very different aspects – what exactly happened on the surface? What happened to the underground oceans? – we are not even sure whether there is a link between the two. September 12, Cassini shot to Titan Titan, the figure has not been processed. In the surface and atmosphere of Titan, there is an active “methane cycle” , which is very similar to the water cycle on Earth. In this cycle, methane replaces the role of water: methane evaporates from the surface lakes, forming clouds, and then bringing “rain”, forming rivers, flowing into lakes, and ending the entire cycle. Therefore, Titan has a “methane climate”. A small amount of methane (and ethane) diffuses into the upper atmosphere, radiating and decomposing under the action of electrons to form a very active free radical, triggering the formation of heavy organic molecules. These organic molecules eventually fall into the surface with “rainwater”, forming a thick layer of organic matter. But because there is no water, so for celestial biologists, a long-standing problem is:

in the absence of water solvent, can give birth to life form?

This is an open question, I am afraid there is no answer, unless there are “methane aliens” to call us …

chemists and celestial biologists have not yet found any ” Waterless life form “of the credible model

, this is sure … if there is such a life bet, I will not bet under great. Now, the “Cassini” has been concluded by gravity measurements and the study of the Titan rotation model. Titan may have an internal ocean composed of water! The ocean is located in the ground tens to hundreds of kilometers,

may exist in life. This is also the case, but the problem is that, unlike the two satellites, the “Cassini” until now also did not find any damage to the underground oceans. The hydrothermal activity of the watergall is

. The only liquid we see on the surface is methane and ethane … so I think it’s just pure speculation. Standing on a rational point of view, I do not believe that there is a methane-based life on the surface. For the existence of the possibility of surface life, my answer is 5% , after all, to leave some room.

▉ & nbsp; Q6

Question 7: What is the focus of future Saturn exploration? (From @ Fu Yu-ming)

Titan de Enclados (Enceladus) pinnacle jet, about 14 hours long, the following figure in August 28, 2017 by the card Sini’s narrow-angle camera was shot, which was also the last shot of Cassini to Tottori II, when Cassini was away from Titan, from 1.1 million kilometers to 866,000 kilometers.

9月12日,卡西尼拍摄到的土卫六泰坦,上图未经过处理。
9月12日,卡西尼拍摄到的土卫六泰坦,上图未经过处理。

I think there is a general consensus that we need to return to the Saturn system, focusing on the investigation of two existing satellites, that is, Titan “Titan” and Titan “Enkrados “, Especially the latter. We may be there to find signs of life, but I would like to point out that this will be a huge challenge. Maybe we’re going to return to Saturn after completing Jupiter’s mission. Saturn is so far away from us, why spend so much money to explore this indifferent thing?

(From @ Dapeng) Cassini shoot the Earth & nbsp; / & nbsp; NASA

Scientific exploration (not just “Cassini”) to help us better understand us Survive the world, discover the world’s singularity and exotic beauty! Remember what Hamlet said, that is, what is a very famous word to Horatio?

“Big heaven and earth, Horatio, much more than you can dream of.” “there & nbsp; are & nbsp; more & nbsp; things & nbsp; on & nbsp; heaven & nbsp; and & nbsp; earth & nbsp; Finally, Beijing time on September 15, 19:00 to 20:30, NASA TV will have live and comment on the press conference. The At 21:30 pm Beijing, NASA will hold a press conference, where scientists at the press conference include Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA Deputy Director, Mike Watkins, Director of Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Earl Maize, Cassini Project Manager Scientist Linda Spilker, Cassini Spacecraft Chief Operating Officer Julie Webster. Michelle Blanche (right) and Scott Edgington (Scott Edgington) in the Griffith Observatory’s terrace, Echo is Cassini – Huygens mission (NASA / JPL) Los Angeles Griffith Observatory celebrates Cassini’s mission, Cassini Virtual Singer consists entirely of Cassini’s JPL members. Egg & nbsp; / & nbsp; https://v.qq.com/x/page/x05503m4g7t.html Blanc dressed in Cassini Memorial T-shirt

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