A recent study may subvert the long-standing description of the behavior of substances before they were swallowed up by black holes.
For a long time people about the material in the black hole swallowed before the behavior of the description of the theory. In the past 20 years, scientists have long believed that there are some iron atoms in varying degrees of ionization in the accretion disk around the black hole, but the spectrum will not be detected because of the fact that the black hole The surrounding extreme environmental conditions, these iron ions do not radiate photons. In other words, there may be a situation around the black hole: “Although there is no photon there, but there may actually be ions.”
However, in the lab, the world’s most powerful X-ray device: Zandia National Laboratory’s “Z machine” (Z machine) simulates the surrounding environment of the black hole and carries out for up to five years After the validation work, the scientists found that the actual situation may not be the case.
The study of the black hole is notoriously difficult because the surrounding environment is too extreme. But with the help of the world’s most powerful laboratory radiation source system, scientists were able to reproduce the X-ray near the black hole and observe it carefully.
In this study, the team found a widely accepted name The theory of “resonant Auger destruction hypothesis” does not seem to actually appear, which means that “there is no ion if there is no photon there.”
The study of the black hole is notoriously difficult because the surrounding environment is too extreme. But with the help of the world’s most powerful laboratory radiation source system, scientists can reproduce the black hole near the X-ray situation and careful observation. Otherwise, such observation can only be carried out in the universe in the vicinity of the extremely distant real black hole. “Of course, we can not observe the direct radiation generated by the black hole,” said Guillaume Loisel, a researcher at the Sandia National Laboratory and the first author of the study. Is the radiation generated by the material around the black hole before it falls into the black hole, and these materials form a disk-like shape before the spiral descent, called the accretion disk. “The material particles in these accretion disk will appear intense mutual friction rise And produce violent X-ray radiation, the presence of such radiation is often used by astronomers to identify the location of the black hole.
In general, however, scientists need to use the orbit observatory to measure the line of the X-ray source originating from the black hole. But even so, the technology is still there are many restrictions. Jim Bailey, co-author of the Sandy National Laboratory, says: “The problem is that the plasma properties of X-ray radiation around black holes are very special, and we are used to solve The theoretical model of its spectral signal has never been tested in the laboratory until now. “
In this study, the team found a widely accepted” resonant In this study, the scientists conducted the first theoretical test of the theory of “resonant Auger destruction hypothesis” (the “Auger destruction”) theory. The theory suggests that electrons in iron atoms become “free electrons” that are “liberated” due to the strong gravitational environment around the black hole and the intense high temperature radiation, rather than reducing the energy back to the original energy by radiating photons.
The Auger destruction theory can well explain the absence of certain photon signals in the accretion disk around the black hole, allowing the presence of certain ions (such as iron ions) and not appearing in the spectral data.
In the experiment, the scientists re-developed the radiation environment near the black hole and experimented with silicon instead of iron. Silicon elements are quite common in the universe and are thought to be more susceptible to Auger destruction than iron.
However, the experimental results are not observed. “If Auger’s destruction is true, then it should appear in our experiment because we created a similar environment, the same column density, the same temperature. Our experiment The results show that if no photons are observed, then the ions do not exist. “
According to Russell, this also means that many of the research papers written on the basis of Auger’s theory may have been needed “reconsider”. “Our results have challenged the theoretical model that has long been used to extrapolate the black hole to deviate around the stars and matter.”
Researchers say the latest study is currently the most accurate of the surrounding environment for black holes simulation. This will help scientists better understand the behavior patterns of the material around the black hole and improve the previous understanding of the subject. “The results of the Sandia lab are exciting because of this,” said Tim Kallman, a NASA astrophysicist, another co-author of the study. Is so far the most close to the experiment to reproduce the surrounding environment of the black hole. “
Russell commented:” Another possibility of interpretation is that perhaps the line of high-energy iron ions isThere is only an error when the line is interpreted. This is because the strong gravitational field of the black hole will have a significant effect on the spectrum, knowing that the photon is hard to get out of such a strong gravitational environment in that environment. “(Morning wind)