Source: Future Forum Public No. 2017 Future Science Award Material Science Award winner Pan Jianwei, born in 1970 in Zhejiang, China University of Science and Technology professor. The main research direction for the quantum physics and quantum information. He is currently the dean of the Institute of Quantum Information and Quantum Science and Technology Innovation. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Meaning King: First of all, congratulations on your award and thank you for your contribution in the field of quantum communication. Please talk about the meaning of the results of this award. Pan: The scientific committee’s summary of my work is basically accurate. I do the main work in quantum communication, it can in principle provide an unconditional security of the communication. In 700 BC, Spartans began to use the encryption number of a method to pass the relevant order. Later to the Roman Empire, Caesar the Great also invented a way to exchange letters into a password. These passwords, in essence, will be cracked. Because even if the characters replaced, the frequency of each character is still fixed, whether it is Chinese, English, or German, have this law. For example, you continue to send a telegram, although you changed A to C, but after a period of time, others in your telegram in the frequency of the characters appear, you will find the number of C is still a regular use of it The frequency of the calculation can break your password. So, whether it is ancient passwords or modern passwords, they are built on the basis of computational complexity. Based on the computational complexity of the password, as long as the computing power is sufficient, in principle, can be cracked. So in human history, information security aspects of the eternal topic, is how to find a safe password. For thousands of years, people have been skeptical to human intelligence in the end can not construct the human body can not break the password? Our work answered the question to a large extent. To our human intelligence, to design a realistic technology, so that unconditional security communication possible. This is what we have done over the years and the results it has achieved.
The question is, what do you think of the award? Pan: I have been on the plane this morning, just two o’clock to Chengdu. About the aircraft I received a lot of text messages, one is the season to the East teacher, one is Ding Hong teacher, there is a teacher Rao Yi, and later Wang Xiaodong teacher also sent me a text message, said let me quickly answer the phone. Xiaodong teacher is very interesting, he said he represents 15 people of the future science prize scientific committee awarded me this year’s future science prize life science prize. This was shocked me. Later, a look at the Internet, turned out to be his typo, I got the material science award (laughs). I am very happy and very happy. I think this is indeed so many years, the domestic areas of our vast number of scientific and technological workers of a certain affirmation. Quantum information research can get such a highly prestigious and highly prestigious scientific reputation of the award, the future of the whole area of the work will promote the encouragement and inspire the role of people, the field of the vast number of workers will certainly work harder To carry out this work. Over the years, I think it is really necessary for us to do something that makes the public interested in science, to make the public more respect for the role of science. From this point of view, I think that the establishment of the future science award is a very good thing. I very much agree with the words just now at the awards scene, Professor Xue Qikun. I think the establishment of the future science prize makes the public more respect and attention to science, and has played a very good role in promoting science and interest in science. To have such a good thing, we should first thank these successful entrepreneurs who are very responsible to society. I also very much recognized the future of the Science Award for awards, which is a very good promotion of our various national awards, but also a change in the award method. Some of the awards of the domestic government have to go to their own defense. And the future science awards throughout the awards process, I do not know I will win the prize. The award-winning party is nominated by nomination, which is one of the best and most equitable ways recognized by the industry. I think that the establishment of this folk award played a very good role model, or is a benchmark.
What is your latest research topic? Pan: Our recent research topics include two aspects: the first aspect, we hope to be able to more mature quantum communication technology as soon as possible to practical. Such as our current work, like quantum satellites, quantum constellations, to form a global quantum network, which is what we want to do in the application of physical things. At the same time, the development of quantum communication technology has greatly opened up our work in the field of basic physics. One of the very interesting ones is that when we can put the light under different gravitational influence, it is possible to look at some general relativity and quantum Gravitational model of the theory to do some basic test, which is what we really want to continue to advance. In addition, our work is largely related to quantum precision measurement, is now known as the GPS global positioning system closely linked. Using this quantum communication network, we can provide us with a very good means of research to ensure that the time signal in the network, accurate transmission, which alsoIs a basic work we need to do in the application of basic research. The second aspect, our main focus is on quantum computing. Quantum computing has a very strong computing power. We hope that through the study of quantum computing, to find one or several more suitable for quantum computing system, a substantial increase in our computing power. Google, Microsoft, IBM, Intel and many other companies cutting-edge research departments are doing this research. We hope that in this one can do some forward-looking exploration, for the future development of the computer to do something.
The first is, in the quantum technology which is the core, the most critical technology is what? Pan: in the quantum technology inside, the most critical, the core technology is actually two. Now that we talk about quantum, we need to use a very good way to manipulate a quantum one by one. So in the quantum technology is the core of manipulation. Manipulation is divided into two aspects of the content. You want to catch the atoms one by one, or the photons one by one caught out, caught after the two atoms in accordance with the needs of your neighbors, through the interaction evolved to some kind of interrelated state, that is, What we call “entanglement”. Manipulation on the one hand to be able to grasp the quantum well, on the other hand to make it control according to your requirements to evolve, which is inside the two very important technology. I’m talking about some concrete examples. The most basic element in quantum communication is photon. For example, the light emitted by light bulbs, energy through continuous attenuation, in the end will be an indispensable small particles. A 15-watt light bulb, about 20 seconds per second will be fired 10 small particles, this small particles we call photons. Photon is the most basic unit of light energy. Another example is water, that is, composed of water molecules, can no longer take a knife to cut into one-half of the water molecules or a quarter of water molecules. If we want to use photon for information processing, with photons to do quantum manipulation, need to pick out from so many of the particles one by one. This is technically very difficult, because it is easy to two, three, four stick together, must be developed a very sophisticated technology to be able to pick out the photons one by one, the information loaded up, then it send out. The second is very important, for example, there are two photons flying in the air, how to let the two photons in the fly when the interaction? In this, you have to know where the photon came out, where the photon came out. The light emitted by the light source is very random, you have to let two originally unrelated photons at the same time to reach the same place, and then entangled them, this is technically very, very difficult. In general, everything is based on quantum control, a very small particles to manipulate, so that two coherent particles can be well through the interaction according to your requirements to evolve. Pan Jianwei winning grounds 05 Quantum password distribution king: then you want to ask you, first, how is the quantum password distribution? The second is to assume that we have built a quantum network in the future, as you would like to mention the last in the principle to achieve unconditional security encryption of such communications, such a quantum network will be in what form, how will affect our life? Pan: First, the most basic content of quantum confidential communications, is to send the key from the sender to the recipient’s hands. How is this done? This is the case, a light fly over, we pick out a photon, the information loaded on. It is also possible to go through the free space, wirelessly from one place to another, or through the fiber to everyone’s room. From this point of view, we in this process to find a way to pick out a single photon, and then through the quantum network, in the city through the fiber to each room. If farther away, like Beijing and Shanghai can be transit through satellite. This is the basic situation of key distribution. Will the king be intercepted or intercepted in the middle of such a path? Pan: I continue to explain why it is safe. Based on two principles: the first principle, for example, before I talk to you, first launch some single photon over, forming a key. Because it is a single photon, each photon carrying a key, if the middle of someone eavesdropping, he needs to extract the information, you have to take a single photon. In essence, he is no way to take only half of the photon, because photons can not be divided. So when you do not receive this photon, you know that the key is not distributed successfully. What is the success of the distribution? We now have a network, if there is a line blocked by it, then we know that this line has always been eavesdropping, we do not send from this line, change from another place on the Internet to your terminal. Just as we e-mail, this e-mail may have a message from this road to go over, another piece of information is from another road to go, not necessarily from a particular place to go, and each time the route also Are not the same. When you receive it, you can know that your message has not been eavesdropped by others, then we both have formed a key, and then we start talking again. The advantage of this is that if someone is eavesdropping, you will be able to know. You only use those keys that have not been overtaken by others to carry out the safe communication between us. Wang: very clear. Pan: Quantum network inside the metropolitan area network, our current technology is progressing very fast. Our current network itself can be wavelength-division multiplexed and can be built on an existing network. So the same fiber, you can use the classic optical communication to send the traditional information, you can also use this fiber to send the quantum key. Assuming now that I am in my room, you are in your room, and if there is a cable, we can pass the help of the cable to pass the key between us, which is very safe.In addition, for wireless, you can imagine at home, for example, in the phone has a key storage chip, the chip can only be written in a special occasion, with the same charge, you can go out after someone else to play security The phone, until the key on your phone, the equivalent of your electricity up so far. This is the goal of mobile quantum communication in the future, the current technology is difficult to directly through the wireless quantum key to your mobile phone inside, but the use of fiber optic network can be very convenient to do. In this case, there is a nationwide or global network that can always be supported by key distribution. In short, in the future we can have a quantum enhancement under the secure internet. 06 Message material science research new king: very good concept. Have you made any suggestions for newcomers who have just entered the material science study? Pan: I think whatever interest, interest is very important. To find what you are interested in doing. Material science which has a lot of research direction, need to choose their own interest in the direction. There is the ability to appreciate their own research topics. Know this thing in the end is not good, is not very interesting, it is also very important. From this point of view, to do their own more interested in things, they can understand the beauty of its things, may be a better choice. Wang: I very much agree with your point of view. Thank you again for the time of the teacher, our visit to the first here, and once again congratulate you on the second future science prize material science award, thank you.